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Democratic Reform in Tibet——Sixty Years On
伟大的跨越:西藏民主改革60年
【法宝引证码】

Democratic Reform in Tibet——Sixty Years On

 

伟大的跨越:西藏民主改革60年

(The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China March 2019) (中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室 2019年3月)

Contents 目录
Preamble 前言
I. Feudal Serfdom: A Dark History 一、黑暗的封建农奴制度
II. Irresistible Historical Trend 二、不可阻挡的历史潮流
III. Abolishing Feudal Serfdom 三、彻底废除封建农奴制
IV. The People Have Become Masters of Their Own Affairs 四、实现了人民当家作主
V. Liberating and Developing the Productive Forces 五、解放和发展了生产力
VI. Promoting a Range of Undertakings 六、推进了各项事业发展
VII. Enhancing Ecological Progress 七、加强了生态文明建设
VIII. Protecting the Freedom of Religious Belief 八、保障了宗教信仰自由
IX. Strengthening Ethnic Equality and Unity 九、促进了民族平等团结
X. Development of Tibet in the New Era 十、西藏发展进入新时代
Conclusion 结束语
Preamble 前言
The year 2019 marks the 60th anniversary of the campaign of democratic reform in Tibet. In traditional Chinese culture, the 60th year is always memorable as it completes a cycle called the Jiazi, a concept unique to the Chinese calendar. 2019年是西藏民主改革60周年。按中国传统文化习俗,六十年一甲子,是值得纪念的日子。
Tibet's democratic reform that took place six decades ago gave a new life to Tibet and the ethnic peoples living there. 六十年前的民主改革,对西藏地方和西藏各族人民而言,是一次新生,意义非同寻常。
These 60 years have changed Tibet completely. Tibet's democratic reform is the greatest and most profound social transformation in the history of Tibet. By abolishing serfdom, a grim and backward feudal system, Tibet was able to establish a new social system that liberated the people and made them the masters of the nation and society, thus ensuring their rights in all matters. 六十年换了人间。民主改革是西藏历史上最伟大最深刻的社会变革。西藏从此废除了黑暗的封建农奴制,建立起全新的社会制度,人民实现了翻身解放,成为国家和社会的主人,各项权利得到充分保障。
These 60 years have turned Tibet into a beautiful home to the people of Tibet. Tibet's democratic reform opened up bright prospects. With the strong support of the central government and the rest of the country, the ethnic peoples of Tibet have spared no effort in forging ahead and transforming their poor and backward old land into a beautiful new home that is economically prosperous and socially advanced, with a sound ecological environment where people live in happiness and contentment. 六十年创造美好。民主改革为西藏开辟了光明的发展前景。在中央政府和全国人民的大力支持下,西藏各族人民勇于进取,顽强拼搏,建设美好家园,把贫穷落后的旧西藏建设成了经济繁荣发展、社会全面进步、生态环境良好、人民生活幸福的新西藏。
These 60 years have seen solidarity and enterprising spirit of the people in Tibet. Thanks to democratic reform, the ethnic peoples of Tibet and the rest of the country have worked together with one heart to develop ethnic relationships characterized by equality, unity, mutual support and harmony. In the fight to guard national unity and oppose separatism, the people of Tibet have closely followed the leadership of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) in the face of all forms of hardship, challenge, and test, reinforcing the communal strength of the Chinese nation. 六十年团结奋进。经过民主改革,西藏各族人民与全国人民一道,同心同德、和衷共济,建立起平等、团结、互助、和谐的民族关系。在维护国家统一、反对分裂的斗争中,西藏各族人民紧密团结在党中央周围,经受住了各种困难和风险的考验,铸牢了中华民族共同体意识。
These 60 years have seen a great leap of social progress. Under the strong leadership of the CPC, Tibet has been able to transform from a society under feudal serfdom to socialism, from poverty and backwardness to civility and progress. As Chinese socialism has entered a new era, the ethnic peoples of Tibet, led by the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping as the core, are working together with the people of the rest of the country to realize the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation. 六十年伟大跨越。在中国共产党的坚强领导下,西藏社会实现了由封建农奴制度向社会主义制度的历史性飞跃,西藏发展实现了由贫穷落后向文明进步的伟大跨越。随着中国特色社会主义进入新时代,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,西藏各族人民正与全国人民一道,为实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦阔步前进。
I. Feudal Serfdom: A Dark History   一、黑暗的封建农奴制度
For centuries Tibet was ruled by feudal serfdom under theocracy. Millions of serfs were subjected to cruel exploitation and oppression until democratic reform in 1959. 历史上,西藏长期实行政教合一的封建农奴制。这一制度一直延续到1959年西藏民主改革前,上百万农奴处于被剥削被压迫的境地。
– Serfs deprived of all rights by the three major estate-holders --三大领主剥夺了农奴的一切权利
The laws of old Tibet divided people into three classes and nine ranks, legalizing the unequal status of different groups and allowing the estate-holders to deny all human rights of their serfs. In the government, controlled by the three major estate-holders (government officials, nobles, and upper-ranking lamas in monasteries), all levels of official came from the families of high-ranking lamas and nobles. Children of major noble families, upon birth, would automatically obtain the fourth-highest official rank, and they could take key positions in government when they were 17 or 18 years of age. Children from middle-ranking and lesser noble families could also take up official positions in government after spending some time studying at official training schools. Most monk officials were lamas from noble families, while serfs, who constituted the vast majority of the Tibetan society, struggled hopelessly on the very bottom rung of society. 旧西藏法律将人分为三等九级,明确规定人在法律上的不平等地位,农奴的人权被领主阶级所剥夺。地方政府完全被官家、贵族和寺庙上层僧侣(又称“三大领主”)所掌控,各级官员由上层僧侣和世俗贵族担任。有的大贵族官员的子弟一出生就获得四品官阶,十七八岁就可出任政府重要职务。中小贵族的子弟经俗官学校学习后,即可进入地方政府任职。僧官大部分由贵族出身的喇嘛担任。广大农奴处于社会最底层,毫无地位可言。
– The serfs' life and death in the hands of the three major estate-holders --三大领主共同掌握对农奴生杀予夺大权
The three major estate-holders applied every means to maintain feudal serfdom, with cruel and barbarous laws and punishments imposed by judicial organs and courts set up within their scopes of influence. Apart from jails set up by the government, there were penitentiaries and private jails run by large monasteries and aristocrats where instruments of torture were kept and private tribunals were held. They cast verdicts, flogged and tortured serfs, had them chained and shackled. Volumes of documents written in Tibetan testify to the savage punishments meted out to serfs, such as cutting off the tongue, nose, hands and feet, wearing stone hat, gouging out the eyes, pulling out tendons, skinning, drowning, and even feeding them to scorpions. The Snang Rtse Shag, located to the north of the Jokhang Temple in Lhasa, used to be the judiciary of old Tibet. Infamously known as a “living hell”, this was where serfs were tortured and slaughtered at will to supply the upper class of the Kashag (cabinet) regime and high-ranking monks with such horrible offerings as human head, skin, flesh, heart, and intestines, which were considered “necessary” when chanting certain scriptures. 三大领主以野蛮、残酷的刑法维护封建农奴制度,他们可以在自己的势力范围内设置司法机构和法庭,除官府所设监狱外,每一个较大寺庙和贵族都设有监狱或私牢,可以自备刑具,私设公堂,惩罚农奴,进行判决、鞭挞、拷问,给农奴戴上镣铐、枷锁。大量藏文档案清晰记载着,割舌、割鼻、戴石帽、剁手足、剜眼、抽筋、剥皮、投水,甚至投入蝎子洞等几十种酷刑。拉萨大昭寺北面的“朗孜厦”,曾经是旧西藏拉萨的司法机构,被称为“人间地狱”,常借实施酷刑和屠杀之机,为噶厦地方政府和寺庙中的上层人士提供“念心咒”用的祭品,如人头、人皮、人肉、人心、人肠等。
– Land, pastures and other means of production monopolized by the three major estate-holders --三大领主集中占有以土地、牧场为主的生产资料
According to statistics gathered prior to democratic reform, a staggering 99.7 percent of all the 220,000 ha of cultivated land in Tibet was owned by the government (85,580 ha), the monasteries and high-ranking monks (80,960 ha), and aristocrats (52,800 ha), while the remaining 0.3 percent of cultivated land was owned by a handful of land-tilling peasants in remote areas. Most pastures were controlled by herd owners. A ballad among serfs of the time goes: 据1959年民主改革前统计,在西藏约330万克(西藏民主改革前计量单位,1克约合1亩)土地中,官家占有128.37万克,寺院和上层僧侣占有121.44万克,贵族占有79.2万克,占有比例高达99.7%。边远地区有极少数的自耕农,占有约0.3%的耕地,大部分牧场也被牧主所控制。当时广大农奴流传着这样的歌谣:“即使雪山变成酥油,也是被领主占有;就是河水变成牛奶,我们也喝不上一口。”
Even if the snow mountain melts into butter, --三大领主对农奴的人身控制和奴役极其残暴
It is the property of the masters. 在领主土地占有制基础上建立起来的人身依附关系,受到政教合一的封建农奴制度的强力保护。噶厦地方政府规定,农奴只能固定在所属领主的庄园内,不得擅自离开,绝对禁止逃亡。噶厦地方政府和达赖喇嘛还多次发布不准收留逃亡农奴的文告。三大领主依靠对土地的绝对占有,掌握着农奴的生死婚嫁。领主还把农奴当作私有财产,随意用于赌博、买卖、转让、赠送、抵债和交换。农奴如果逃亡,就会被处以断足、鞭笞等惩罚。三大领主不仅对广大农奴进行人身控制,还通过乌拉差役对其进行残酷奴役,以和平解放前摄政达扎的达隆绛庄园为例:庄园共有土地1445克,所属农奴全劳动力和半劳动力计81人,全年共支内差11826天,外差9440天,内外差共计21266天,每个劳动力平均要支应262.5天的乌拉差役,约占全部劳动量的72%。
Even if the river water turns into milk, --三大领主对农奴进行野蛮的苛捐杂税盘剥
There is not a single drop for us. 在旧西藏,三大领主占有绝大部分生产资料,对广大农奴采取非人的压榨和剥削。仅噶厦地方政府征收的差税就达200多种。农奴为了活命,不得不频繁举债,欠债的农奴占农奴总数的90%以上。农奴所负的债务有新债、子孙债、连保债、集体摊派债等等,其中三分之一以上是祖祖辈辈欠下、永远还不清的子孙债。当时流传一首民谣:“爷爷的爷爷欠下的债,爸爸的爸爸没有还清,到了儿子的儿子那辈,连利息的利息也还不完。”根据1959年至1960年民主改革的统计,西藏共废除高利贷1690万克粮(西藏民主改革前计量单位,1克约合14公斤),1400多万品藏银(西藏民主改革前计量单位,1品约合50两藏银)。如果与1958年西藏全年的粮食总产量1250万克相比,民主改革所废除的高利贷已经超过了一年粮食的总产量。
– Serfs owned and enslaved by the three major estate-holders --三大领主利用宗教对社会进行严密的精神控制
The bondage of serfs to the land owners was protected by the powerful theocratic rule. The Kashag regime prescribed that all serfs must stay on the land within the manor of their owners. They were not allowed to step out of the manor without permission; fleeing the manor was forbidden. Any serf who attempted to flee might receive a lashing as punishment or have their feet chopped off. The Kashag and the Dalai Lama also issued decrees prohibiting the furnishing of refuge to fleeing serfs. With their absolute control of land, the three major estate-holders held the power of life, death and marriage over their serfs. Since serfs were their private property, they could trade and transfer them, present them as gifts, use them as gambling stakes or as mortgages for debt, or exchange them at will. The three major estate-holders also imposed heavy corvée labor on serfs. For example, before liberation of Tibet in 1951, the Darongqang Manor owned by Gyaltsap Tajtra held a total of 96 ha of land, and 81 able-bodied and semi-able-bodied serfs. They were assigned a total of 21,266 corvée days per year, including 11,826 days working for their owners and 9,440 days for the government. The average corvée labor of each serf amounted to 262.5 days a year, or 72 percent of their entire year of labor. 三大领主宣扬“极乐世界”和“来世幸福”控制农奴的精神思想,使其安于被奴役的命运。1913年进藏的日本人多田等观在《入藏纪行》中写道:“西藏人的想法完全是宗教性的,他们认为自己罪孽深重,认为达赖喇嘛为了挽救他们才课以重税。他们还认为今世如能减轻罪恶,来世就能幸福。”著名藏学家王森、王辅仁在《废除西藏喇嘛寺庙的封建特权和封建剥削》一文中揭露:“从1958年到1959年春,仅在拉萨西郊一个佛堂里,为了念经放咒,就先后向一个管事头人索要过整人头27个,人头盖骨6个,人腿骨4根,整张人皮1张,人尸1具,人肠14捆,人肉8块,人血9瓶。”对于旧西藏的这种社会状态,1940年前来主持十四世达赖喇嘛坐床的国民政府蒙藏委员会委员长吴忠信有深入的观察,他在《奉使办理藏事报告书》中写道:“各级各等之人员,对于本身所属阶级视为前生命定,行之若素,即极下贱者,亦甘之若饴。”三大领主垄断了精神文化生活,凡与其利益或观念相违背的思想文化,均被视为异端邪说。近代著名藏族学者根敦群培揭露僧人的腐败与堕落,提倡藏传佛教改革,为噶厦地方政府所不容,遭到囚禁和迫害。
– Serfs exploited by exorbitant taxes and levies 
In old Tibet, the three major estate-holders possessed almost all means of production. They burdened their serfs with inhumane taxes and levies. The Kashag regime alone imposed some 200 different taxes. Serfs had to borrow money to survive, and more than 90 percent of serfs were in debt. Serfs were burdened with all kinds of debts such as debts passed down from previous generations, new debts, debts resulting from joint liability, and debts apportioned among all the serfs. The debts that were passed down from previous generations and could never be repaid even by succeeding generations accounted for one third of the total debts. There was a widespread ballad that described the debts that bound serfs: The debts owed by the grandpa of my grandpa Could not be paid off by the father of my father, And the son of my son Will not be able to repay even the interest. According to statistics collated in 1959-60, during Tibet's democratic reform usurious loans of 236,600 tons of grain and 700 million liang of Tibetan silver were written off. The loans written off during democratic reform surpassed the entire 175,000-ton grain output of the whole of Tibet in 1958. 
– Strict mind control in the name of religion 
The three major estate-holders exercised mind control over serfs so that they accepted their fate in the hope of entering the “Elysium” after they died and obtaining “happiness in the next life”. In Tibetan Travel Notes (Chibetto Taizaiki), a Japanese monk named Tokan Tada, who entered Tibet in 1913, wrote: “The Tibetans are very religious. They are convinced of their sins, and believe that the Dalai Lama's heavy taxes are a means of redemption. They also believe in happiness in the next life if their sins are cleansed in this life." In “Abolishing the Feudal Privileges and Exploitation in Tibetan Lamaist Monasteries”, well-known Tibetologists Wang Sen and Wang Furen wrote: “From 1958 to the spring of 1959, one chapel in the western suburbs of Lhasa, for the purpose of prayer, asked for 27 human heads, six skulls, four leg bones, one full human skin, one corpse, 14 bundles of intestines, eight chunks of human flesh, and nine bottles of human blood." After presiding over the enthronement ceremony of the 14th Dalai Lama in 1940, Wu Zhongxin, chief of the Commission for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs of the National Government, described the situation in old Tibet in his “Report on Tibetan Affairs on a Mission”: “People of all classes and ranks believe they are destined to belong to a certain class or rank from the previous life, and they are accustomed to it. Even those in the lowest rank are content with the status quo.” Monopolizing the spiritual and cultural life of the Tibetan people, the three major estate-holders attacked as heresy any idea or culture that ran contrary to their interests. The Tibetan scholar Gedun Chophel, who exposed the corruption and degeneracy of monks and advocated reform in Tibetan Buddhism, was imprisoned and persecuted by the Kashag government. 
II. Irresistible Historical Trend   二、不可阻挡的历史潮流
Serfdom is the most brutal form of slavery in feudal society. It is a barbaric and backward social system in terms of economic development, political democracy or human rights protection. By the 1950s, the very existence of feudal serfdom had violated the development trend of human history. Such a system was a stain on civilization and was destined to be eradicated by history. 农奴制是封建社会最残酷的奴役形式,无论从经济的发展、政治的民主,还是从人权的保障角度来审视,农奴制都是野蛮落后的社会制度。时至20世纪50年代,封建农奴制度的存在完全背离人类历史发展潮流。这样一种制度是文明的耻辱,注定要被历史抛弃。
Throughout human history, slavery and serfdom have existed in most parts of the world. The two systems were renounced as backward and outdated as new ideas and enlightenment emerged in modern times, and abolitionism or abolitionist movements began to appear in many countries, ringing the death knell of slavery and serfdom. With the rise of the bourgeois revolution in Europe and the United States, the two were successively abolished in France, Britain, Russia, and the United States. In 1794, during the French Revolution, France put an end to slavery. Britain enacted the Slave Trade Act in 1807 and the Slavery Abolition Act in 1833. In 1861, Russia abolished serfdom with a top-down peaceful reform. In 1865, by virtue of victory in the Civil War, the US federal government abolished slavery and forced labor by means of a constitutional amendment. 在人类社会发展史上,具有人身依附关系的奴隶制、农奴制在世界上大多数地方都存在过。近代以后,随着新思想和启蒙运动的出现,奴隶制、农奴制已被认为是落后过时的制度,废奴或废奴运动开始在一些国家出现,敲响了奴隶制、农奴制灭亡的丧钟。随着欧美资产阶级革命的兴起,法国、英国、俄国、美国等陆续废除奴隶制、农奴制。法国大革命后,法国于1794年宣布废除奴隶制。1807年、1833年,英国先后通过《废除奴隶贸易法案》和《废除奴隶制法案》。1861年,俄国以自上而下的和平改革废除了农奴制。1865年,美国联邦政府凭借南北战争的胜利,以宪法修正案的形式废除了奴隶制和强制劳役。
The end of the Second World War ushered in a new era of development, when peace, development, equity, justice, democracy and freedom became the goals of human society. In 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the United Nations clearly stated: “No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.” In 1956, the United Nations adopted the Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery. Article 1 of the Convention states that “Each of the States Parties to this Convention shall take all practicable and necessary legislative and other measures to bring about progressively and as soon as possible the complete abolition or abandonment of the following institutions and practices...” 第二次世界大战后,刚刚从大战硝烟中走出的世界,正迎来一个新的发展时代,和平、发展、公平、正义、民主、自由成为人类社会的崇高追求。1948年,联合国通过的《世界人权宣言》明确指出:“任何人不得使为奴隶或奴役;一切形式的奴隶制度和奴隶买卖,均应予以禁止。”1956年,联合国专门通过了《废止奴隶制、奴隶贩卖及类似奴隶制的制度与习俗补充公约》,要求各缔约国采取一切实际而必要的立法及其他措施,逐渐地和迅速地加以完全废除。
On October 1, 1949 the People's Republic of China (PRC) was founded, opening a new era in Chinese history. Under the leadership of the CPC, a new socialist system was established, making the people the masters of the country. On May 23, 1951, the Agreement of the Central People's Government and the Local Government of Tibet on Measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet (hereinafter the “17-Article Agreement”) was signed, officially proclaiming the peaceful liberation of Tibet. In view of unbalanced social development and special circumstances in some places, Liu Shaoqi, then chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC), said at the First Session of the First NPC in 1954: “Ethnic minority areas that have not completed democratic reform can complete it in some gentle manner in the future and then gradually move forward to socialism." In 1953, Xinjiang completely abolished all remaining feudal serfdom. Beginning in 1956, democratic reform was also carried out in Tibetan areas of Gansu, Sichuan, and Qinghai provinces. In Yunnan Province, parental slavery among the Lisu, Jingpo, and Va ethnic groups and the slavery of the Mosuo people in Yongning were abolished in 1956 through peaceful negotiation; slavery among the Xiaoliangshan Yi people in Ninglang and feudal slavery in Deqen Tibetan area were abolished in 1958. From early 1956 to late 1957, democratic reform was carried out in the Liangshan Yi ethnic area in Sichuan Province which completely abolished slavery. The abolition of serfdom was a major trend of social progress in China in the 1950s. However, Tibet at that time was still ruled by feudal serfdom under theocracy, which seriously obstructed social development and the process of civilization. 1949年10月1日,中华人民共和国成立,开启了中国历史的崭新时代。在中国共产党的领导下,新生的人民共和国建立起全新的社会主义制度,人民当家作主。1951年5月23日,中央人民政府与西藏地方政府签订《关于和平解放西藏办法的协议》(以下简称《十七条协议》),正式宣告西藏和平解放。新中国成立伊始,鉴于中国社会发展的不平衡性、特别是一些地方的特殊情况,1954年,时任全国人大常委会委员长的刘少奇在一届全国人大一次会议上说:“现在还没有完成民主改革的少数民族地区,今后也可以用某种和缓的方式完成民主改革,然后逐步过渡到社会主义。”1953年新疆彻底废除了残余的封建农奴制(伯克制)。1956年开始,甘肃、四川、青海等省藏区也陆续进行民主改革。在云南,通过和平协商的办法于1956年废除了傈僳族、景颇族、佤族的家长奴隶制和永宁摩梭人的奴隶制,1958年又废除了宁蒗小凉山彝族奴隶制和迪庆藏族地区的封建农奴制。1956年初至1957年底,四川省凉山彝族聚居区开展民主改革,彻底废除了奴隶制度。废除农奴制已成为20世纪50年代新中国社会发展的大趋势。然而,此时的西藏依然延续着政教合一的封建农奴制,社会发展和文明进步受到严重阻碍。
– Agricultural production was stagnated by theocratic feudal serfdom in Tibet for a long time. --政教合一的封建农奴制使西藏生产长期处于停滞状态
Before the 1950s, agriculture in Tibet remained bound to extensive farming methods or even primitive slash-and-burn farming. Wooden tools were widely used, and the average yield was only four or five times that of seeds sown – not much different from hundreds of years ago. Most of the food, clothing, and supplies were made by hand by individuals or manors. There was no vitality in society. 直到20世纪50年代,西藏的农业仍停滞在粗放耕作甚至“刀耕火种”的原始生产方式,普遍使用木制农具,平均产量仅有种子的四五倍,与几百年前无多大区别。绝大部分吃、穿、用品都要靠个体或庄园的手工生产,毫无社会生机和活力。
– Feudal serfdom under theocracy caused sharp conflicts and opposition between serf owners and their labor. --政教合一的封建农奴制生产关系已经与劳动主体形成尖锐矛盾和对立
By exploiting serfs, serf owners hoarded social wealth and spent it on extravagant and dissipated lives, in addition to supplying ecclesiastical and secular officials and their servants. Serfs, who were brutally deprived of the fruits of their hard work by serf owners, lived a miserable life. As they could barely survive, they had no choice but to rebel or flee. 农奴主通过剥削农奴攫取的社会财富,除供养僧俗官员和蓄养奴仆外,其余的全部用于骄奢淫逸的生活耗费。农奴辛勤劳作的成果被农奴主残酷剥夺,深陷饥寒交迫的悲苦境地,失去了生活能力,不得不反抗和逃亡。
– Feudal serfdom under theocracy seriously impeded the spread and development of modern science, technology and culture. --政教合一的封建农奴制严重阻碍了现代科技文化的传播发展
To consolidate its rule, the government of Tibet controlled by three major estate-holders practiced theocracy, promoted superstition, and opposed science by every possible means, which seriously hindered the spread and application of modern science and technology. Although the ruling clique sent youth from aristocratic families to study modern science and technology abroad, the purpose was mainly for the rulers' own satisfaction, rather than to learn and apply advanced science and technology. 由三大领主把控的西藏地方政权,为了巩固自己的统治,宣扬神权迷信,反对科学,严重阻碍了现代科学技术的传播和运用。尽管统治集团也曾派贵族子弟到国外学习现代科学技术,但主要是为了满足统治者自身享用,并不是为了学习先进,倡导科学。
Thanks to the efforts of the central government, the peaceful liberation in 1951 ended Tibet's long-lasting chaos, conflict, occlusion and stagnation. It experienced new economic and social development. Based on the 17-Article Agreement, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) entered Tibet in October 1951, and the Tibet Military Region was established in 1952 to take up the task of defending this frontier region. The central authorities established the CPC Tibet Working Committee and its branches in Lhasa and other places to perform its functions. Before democratic reform in 1959, Tibet had political powers with different nature: the Kashag regime and Panchen Kampus Assembly; and the Qamdo People's Liberation Committee and the Tibet Autonomous Region Preparatory Committee. As the 17-Article Agreement stipulated, “The central government will not alter the current political system of Tibet.… In matters related to reform in Tibet, there will be no compulsion on the part of the central government. The local government of Tibet shall take initiative to carry out reform, and when the people raise demands for reform, the central government shall consult with the leading personnel to settle the issue." The Central People's Government adopted a circumspect attitude and a rather lenient policy, actively persuading and winning over patriotic people from the upper class while patiently waiting for Tibet's ruling class to carry out reform. In the meantime, in response to the long-term influence of theocracy in Tibet, CPC-led organizations and staff at different levels carried out meticulous work among the people and conscientiously implemented the policy that no reform should be carried out in Tibet within six years, thus winning the support of the ordinary people and of patriots from the upper class. 和平解放后,在中央政府的努力下,西藏结束了内部长期混乱和纷争,初步打破了西藏社会长期封闭停滞的局面,西藏经济社会发展出现新气象,发生新变化。按照《十七条协议》,1951年10月解放军入藏,1952年成立西藏军区,担负起保卫国家边疆的任务。中央通过设立西藏工作委员会在拉萨及各地建立分支机构并开展工作。1959年民主改革前,西藏同时存在着噶厦地方政府、班禅堪布会议厅和昌都地区人民解放委员会、西藏自治区筹备委员会等不同性质的政权组织。按照《十七条协议》规定:“对于西藏的现行政治制度,中央不予变更”;“有关西藏的各项改革事宜,中央不加强迫。西藏地方政府应自动进行改革,人民提出改革要求时,得采取与西藏领导人员协商的方法解决之”。中央人民政府坚持“慎重稳进”方针和极为宽容的政策,积极争取和团结爱国上层人士,耐心等待西藏地方上层统治集团自我改革。同时,针对西藏长期受到神权统治影响,中国共产党领导的各级组织和工作人员开展了耐心细致的群众工作,认真贯彻执行了“六年不改”的工作方针,赢得了爱国上层人士、广大人民群众的拥护和支持。
Even as they were aware that feudal serfdom under theocracy was coming to an end, the 14th Dalai Lama and the reactionaries in Tibet's upper class had no wish to conduct reform. Instead, they tried to maintain the system for fear that reform would deprive them of their political and religious privileges, together with their huge economic benefits. 面对已经走到尽头的政教合一的封建农奴制,十四世达赖喇嘛和西藏上层反动集团不仅不思改革,还极力维护这一制度,他们担心改革不仅会使他们失去政教特权,还会失去巨大的经济利益。
It was through feudal serfdom under theocracy that the three major estate-holders gathered enormous wealth. Before democratic reform, the family of the 14th Dalai Lama possessed 27 manors, 30 pastures and over 6,000 serfs, and annually wrung out of them more than 462,000 kg of highland barley, 35,000 kg of butter, 2 million liang of Tibetan silver, 300 head of cattle and sheep, and 175 rolls of pulu (woolen fabric made in Tibet). 三大领主正是通过政教合一的封建农奴制聚敛了大量财富。据统计,民主改革前,十四世达赖喇嘛家族在西藏占有27座庄园、30个牧场,拥有农(牧)奴6000多人,每年在农奴身上榨取的青稞33000多克(1克约合14公斤),酥油2500多克,藏银200多万两,牛羊300头,氆氇175卷。
III. Abolishing Feudal Serfdom   三、彻底废除封建农奴制
According to the 17-Article Agreement, in the early days of the peaceful liberation of Tibet, the CPC focused on winning over the people of the upper class and endeavored to get support from the ordinary people, rather than mobilizing them immediately to launch reform. The PLA and CPC organizations in Tibet worked hard to benefit the local people, giving free medical treatment, working to eliminate infectious diseases, building water conservancy projects, roads and bridges, providing disaster rescue and relief, distributing interest-free loans, offering certified seeds and farm tools, showing films, and providing jobs instead of handouts. During the construction of the Sichuan (Xikang)-Tibet Highway in 1950, the people in Tibet realized that they were neither providing corvée labor to the PLA, nor being enslaved by serf owners, but working for themselves and their own future generations. The construction workers in Jomo Dzong (present-day Bayi District of Nyingchi City, Dzong is roughly equivalent to today's county) and Tsela Dzong (present-day Mainling County of Nyingchi City) said, “The PLA soldiers are living gods. Those who spoke ill of the PLA are wolves in sheep's clothing and demons hidden among our Tibetan people.” 依据《十七条协议》,和平解放初期,中国共产党的西藏工作以上层统战为主,以影响群众为辅,而不是急于直接发动群众进行改革。进藏人民解放军和工作人员通过免费医疗和消除传染疾病、兴修水利、架桥修路、抢险救灾、发放无息贷款、赠送良种农具、放映电影、以工代赈等方式,积极为群众办好事,开展了艰苦细致的工作。在修筑川(康)藏公路中,群众认识到修路不是给解放军支乌拉差役,也不是给老爷们当牛马,而是真正为自己和子孙后代造福。觉木(现林芝市巴宜区境内)、则拉(现米林县境内)等宗(县)的民工说:“解放军个个都像活菩萨,那些说解放军坏话的人,是披着羊皮的豺狼,是混在我们藏族中的魔鬼!”
In July 1954, ice collapse caused disastrous floods in the upper reaches of the Nyangchu River. The floods drowned 91 people in Gyantse Dzong and Panam Dzong, destroyed 170 villages, affected more than 16,000 people, swallowed over 4,000 ha of land, and drowned about 8,000 head of cattle and sheep. In response, the central government allocated 800,000 silver dollars for disaster relief. The CPC Gyantse Working Committee and the local PLA garrison fought the floods and provided succor to the victims. Despite limited supplies, they provided 730,000 kg of food, loaned 560,000 kg of seeds, distributed farm tools to a value of 15,000 silver dollars, donated 28,000 meters of tent cloth, and contributed cash and clothes to a total value of more than 100,000 silver dollars. As a contrast, in March 1956, Nagchu Dzong (present-day Seni District of Nagqu City) was stricken by a catastrophic blizzard. The government of Tibet did not send relief to victims, but urged them to pay their rents without offering any reduction or exemption. The headman of Damshung Dzong even prevented the CPC Nagchu Working Committee from distributing highland barley and tea among the victims. Through these incidents, the people in Tibet acquired a better understanding of the CPC and the PLA, and realized that only by abolishing feudal serfdom could they start a new life. 1954年7月,年楚河上游因冰川崩塌造成特大洪灾,江孜、白朗两宗淹死群众91人,冲毁村庄170个,受灾群众1.6万多人,淹没土地6万多克,死亡牲畜8000多头(只)。灾情发生后,中央立即拨款80万银元救灾,江孜分工委和驻当地解放军舍生忘死与洪水搏斗,抢救受灾群众。当地驻军和工作人员在供应十分困难的情况下,仍救济灾民口粮73万多公斤,贷放种子56万多公斤,无偿发放农具折合银元1.5万余元,帐篷布2.8万米,干部战士捐献衣物和现金合计折合银元10万多元。与此形成鲜明对照的是,黑河(现那曲市色尼区)发生重大雪灾时,西藏地方政府不但不救灾,反而催逼牧民交租,并且不准减免。当雄宗头人甚至阻止黑河分工委下发青稞和茶叶救济灾民。这些事例使群众加深了对共产党、解放军的认识,体会到只有废除封建农奴制才能过上新生活。
The contrast awakened the people in Tibet. Some serfs stood up to oppose oppression and exploitation; some cast off the control of their serf owners and fled. According to Pasang, formerly a slave and now a senior official, she had been forced into hard labor for her master when she was a teenager. Unable to tolerate any more beatings from her master, she fled at the age of 15. In 1956, more than 100 peasants in Lang Dzong and Palbar Dzong gathered for a meeting to demand democratic reform. On July 25, 1956, some 65 peasants in Lhunzhub County of Lhasa submitted a letter carrying their finger prints to the 14th Dalai Lama, saying, “We are all peasants. We are more anxious for democratic reform than anyone else.” 通过新旧对比,人民群众日益觉醒,有些农奴已不甘于受压迫和剥削,有的愤然挣脱农奴主的控制而逃离。据曾经是农奴主的家奴、后来担任高级干部的巴桑回忆,她十多岁就为农奴主做苦役,15岁那年,实在不堪忍受农奴主的毒打,逃出了庄园。1956年,朗宗和边坝宗100多位农民自发组织起来,开会拥护民主改革。1956年7月25日,拉萨林周的65位农民给十四世达赖喇嘛呈递一封按有65个手印的联名信,信中说:“我们都是种地的农民,比任何人都更焦急地盼望实行改革。”
Seeing the contrast, some members of the upper class in Tibet began to support democratic reform. From 1952, the CPC Tibet Working Committee organized several dozen delegations from Tibet to visit other parts of China, including delegations to visit the central government, delegations to celebrate the anniversaries of the founding of the PRC in Beijing, visiting groups, and delegations of Buddhists. As the delegates witnessed the rapid development elsewhere, some patriotic individuals from the upper class changed their minds and began to support the idea of democratic reform in Tibet. 通过新旧对比,西藏部分上层人士也开始拥护改革。自1952年,西藏工委陆续组织西藏地区的致敬团、国庆观礼团、参观团、佛教代表团等几十个团体到内地参观。各团成员亲眼见到祖国内地的迅速发展,一部分爱国上层人士在思想深处发生重大变化,逐步消除了对改革的顾虑。
A peasant from Pangcun Village of Doilungdeqen District in Lhasa recalled two incidents. In 1956, the central government invited the manor owners in Tibet to visit other parts of China, and after the visit, one of them named Chadrak Kelzang Sherab decided to free his serfs and distribute his land to them. In 1956, a Tibetan women's delegation led by Thangme Konchog Palmo, an aristocrat, completed a trip outside of Tibet. On their return, they publicized the policies and benefits of democratic reform among the peasants in the suburbs of Lhasa, and persuaded many members of the Tibetan Patriotic Youth Association and the Tibetan Patriotic Women's Association to stand up for democratic reform in Tibet. 据堆龙德庆区旁村村民回忆:1956年,政府邀请西藏的庄园主到内地参观,由于受到了教育和鼓励,有一位名叫加察·格桑西热的庄园主回来后,决定把土地分给农奴,并给他们自由。1956年,以大贵族出身的唐麦·贡觉白姆为团长的西藏妇女参观团第一次到内地参观,返藏后向拉萨郊区的农民宣传民主改革能给人民带来好处,宣传民主改革的政策,促使西藏爱国青年联谊会和爱国妇女联谊会中许多成员主动拥护民主改革。
In September 1957, Palgon Chogdrup, a headman in Gyantse, savagely tortured a serf called Wangchen Pungstog. Hearing of this, Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme, then a Kalon (cabinet minister) of the government of Tibet, was furious, saying, “The people in Tibet are sure to choose socialism and anxious to start democratic reform. This is what they need. They want to boost political, economic and cultural development and pursue happiness. It is also an inexorable law of human development and an unstoppable trend of progress.” 1957年9月,江孜发生头人本根却珠毒打农奴出身的旺钦平措事件,时任西藏地方政府噶伦的阿沛·阿旺晋美闻听此事非常气愤,明确说道:“西藏人民肯定要走社会主义道路,而且肯定要实行民主改革,这不仅是西藏人民发展政治、经济、文化等事业和走向幸福道路所需要的,也是人类向前发展的必然规律,是任何逆流都阻挡不住的。”
In 1952, Samling Tsering Paldron, daughter of aristocrat Yuthok, began to teach the Tibetan language to the PLA men in Tibet, heedless of opposition of the reactionaries from the local upper class. She said, “I firmly believe that one day the people in Tibet will finally shake off oppression and exploitation imposed by feudal serfdom. One day we will finally build a political power of our own under the leadership of the CPC.” 大贵族宇拓的女儿桑林·次仁白珍,1952年为进藏解放军教授藏语文,不畏反动上层分子的威胁和恫吓,“坚信西藏人民总有一天能够摆脱封建农奴制度的压迫剥削,在中国共产党的领导下建立一个人民群众自己的政权”。
The people in Tibet began to develop a proper understanding of reform, and some people of the upper class began to see it in a more positive light. However, in an attempt to maintain their vested interests and to perpetuate feudal serfdom under theocracy, a group of Tibetans launched a rebellion in a bid to halt social progress. 随着人民群众觉悟的提高以及上层人士发生的积极变化,西藏上层反动集团为了不失去既得利益,永远保持政教合一的封建农奴制,一些人不惜以发动叛乱来阻挡社会进步。
In March 1959, reactionaries from the upper class working in the government of Tibet tore up the 17-Article Agreement and staged an all-out armed rebellion in Lhasa. The rebellion ran counter to the will of the people of Tibet and the current of history. In response, the central government decided to dissolve the government of Tibet and quell the rebellion, and at the same time, mobilized the people of Tibet to begin democratic reform. 1959年3月,西藏地方政府中的上层反动分子,违背历史潮流和西藏广大人民的意愿,公然撕毁《十七条协议》,发动全面武装叛乱。在这种情况下,中央政府果断决定解散西藏地方政府和彻底平息叛乱,同时坚决放手发动群众,实行民主改革。
Democratic reform in Tibet was a continuation of China's New Democratic Revolution led by the CPC, and an inevitable result of the social transformation from degeneration to progress. Democratic reform was implemented progressively in the rural areas, pastoral areas, monasteries, and urban areas. 西藏民主改革是中国共产党领导的中国新民主主义革命的重要组成部分,是腐朽的社会形态被进步的社会形态替代的必然结果。民主改革在农村、牧区、寺庙、城镇等陆续展开。
In the rural areas, which had a population of 800,000, the central government mobilized the people to take part in a campaign against rebellion, corvée labor, and slavery, and in favor of lower rents for land and a reduction of interest on loans. Subsequently, the central government distributed land to peasants so as to completely eradicate feudal serfdom. As a result, the serfs, who had been exploited and enslaved for generations, finally won freedom. They took ownership of more than 186,666 ha of land and other means of production. When their slave indentures and so-called IOU were burned in fire, they sang and danced to celebrate their liberation. In early 1960, about 200,000 farm households in Tibet acquired land certificates. Benefiting from policies such as the harvest of a farmland belonging to the one who sowed, lower rents for land, reduction in interest on loans, and the cancellation of old debts, the peasants gained more than 500 million kg of grain in total, over 750 kg per person. Tsering Drolkar, a 68-year-old peasant from Khesum Shika of Nedong County said, “We had been providing corvée labor our whole lives. We never owned a single piece of land, what we worried about was how to find food for survival. Now with the land given to us by the people's government, we will no longer go hungry.” The freed serfs cheered, “The sunshine of the Dalai Lama touches only the nobles, while the sunshine of Chairman Mao showers on us poor people. The noble's sun is setting and our sun is rising.” 在80万人口的农业区,通过充分发动群众,第一步实行“三反双减”,即反对叛乱、反对乌拉差役、反对人身依附和减租、减息;第二步分配土地,彻底摧毁封建农奴制度。世世代代受尽剥削和奴役的农奴获得了自由解放,分得了280多万亩土地和其他生产资料,当熊熊烈火烧掉契约和债据时,翻身农奴载歌载舞,庆祝翻身解放的光辉节日。1960年初,20万户西藏农户拿到了土地证,由于实行“谁种谁收”“减租减息”和废除旧债等政策,劳动人民所得的经济利益折合粮食达十亿多斤,平均每人可得1500多斤。乃东县克松谿卡68岁的次仁卓嘎说:“我们支了一辈子乌拉,过去从没敢想过自己有一块土地,整天担心的就是挨饿。人民政府现在给我们分了地,再也不怕挨饿了。”广大翻身农奴高兴地说:“达赖的太阳照在贵族身上,毛主席的太阳照在我们穷人身上;现在,贵族的太阳下山了,我们的太阳升起来了。”
In the pastoral areas with a population of 280,000, the central government launched a campaign against the rebellion, corvée labor and slavery, and adopted policies that were beneficial to both hired herdsmen and herd owners, but the latter were deprived of their feudal privileges. The central government confiscated the cattle and sheep of the estate-holders and herd owners who had participated in the rebellion, and distributed the livestock to their hired hands and other poor herdsmen. The central government did not discriminate against or punish herd owners who had not been involved in the rebellion, and allowed them to continue to own their cattle and sheep. These protective measures changed feudal enslavement to an employment relationship. This motivated the hired hands to protect and grow their herds, and the herd owners to operate and develop animal husbandry. Both people and cattle were able to live in peace. Although a large number of cattle and sheep had been slaughtered by the rebels, animal husbandry in Tibet soon recovered and began to prosper. The herdsmen on the Damxung Prairie sang a ballad: In the past, the Damxung Prairie belonged to our herdsmen, But it was later taken by Sera Monastery. Ever since then, we have been living in hell. Now the people's government has issued a new decree, And we have elected our own leaders. The beautiful Damxung Prairie has been returned to our herdsmen." 在28万人口的牧业区,废除了牧主的封建特权,主要实行“三反两利”,即反对叛乱、反对乌拉差役、反对人身依附,实行牧工、牧主两利。没收参加叛乱领主和牧主的牲畜,分给原牧放者及贫苦牧民,对未参加叛乱的实行“不斗、不分、不划阶级”的政策,牲畜仍归牧主所有。这些保护措施,把封建的主奴关系改变为雇佣关系,调动了牧工保护牲畜和发展牲畜的积极性,也调动了牧主发展牧业和经营牧业的积极性,基本上达到了人畜两安,克服了因叛乱分子大量宰杀牛羊造成的困难,牧业得到迅速恢复和发展。当雄草原上的牧民唱道:“过去,当雄草原是我们自己的。后来,被色拉寺霸占了,从此,活人好像进了地狱。如今,新政府颁发了新的法令,我们选举了自己的领导人,美丽的当雄草原,又回到了我们自己的手里。”
In the monasteries, by means of prudent and steady measures, the CPC launched a campaign against the rebellion, feudal privileges and exploitation, and dealt with matters of political persecution, class oppression, and economic exploitation. These measures abolished feudal privileges, exploitation and the system of oppression. The CPC promoted political unity and separation of government from religion, and punished the rebels and reactionaries acting under the guise of religious beliefs. It maintained the principle of freedom of religious belief, respected and protected citizens' civil rights in this regard, protected patriotic and law-abiding monasteries, and established a democratic management system in monasteries. The CPC adopted a buying-out policy with respect to the means of production owned by those monasteries uninvolved in the rebellion. During the campaign of democratic reform, a large number of monks and nuns voluntarily resumed secular life. After the campaign, 553 monasteries were retained in Tibet, housing over 7,000 monks and nuns, which fulfilled the religious needs of local believers. 在寺庙,中国共产党始终采取稳慎和稳妥的办法,实行“三反三算”,开展反对叛乱、反对封建特权、反对封建剥削,算政治迫害账、算阶级压迫账、算经济剥削账运动,彻底废除寺庙的封建特权和封建剥削压迫制度,实行政治统一、政教分离,坚决打击披着宗教外衣的叛乱分子和反革命分子。坚持宗教信仰自由政策,尊重和保护公民宗教信仰自由的权利,保护爱国守法寺庙,建立寺庙民主管理制度。对未参加叛乱的寺庙所占有的生产资料,同样采取赎买政策。民主改革中,众多的僧尼自愿还俗返家。民主改革完成后,西藏保留了寺庙553座,留寺僧尼7000多人,基本满足了当时信教群众宗教生活需要。
In the urban areas, the central government launched a campaign against the rebellion, the feudal system, exploitation and privileges, and in favor of lower rents for land and a reduction of interest on loans. The central government adopted a buying-out policy with respect to land and means of production owned by those serf owners and their agents uninvolved in the rebellion. It protected industry and commerce, adopted different policies towards rebels and non-rebels among industrialists and businessmen, and protected rights and interests of those engaged in industry and commerce. It organized aid for poor citizens and vagrants, resumed commerce and free exchange of goods, secured urban supplies, and restored social and economic order. At the same time, the CPC strengthened the united front work and strove to unite all available forces. Those serf owners and their agents who were patriotic, opposed imperialism, and accepted democratic reform, were provided with appropriate employment. 在城镇实行“四反双减”,发动群众开展反叛乱、反封建制度、反封建剥削、反封建特权和减租、减息运动,对未参加叛乱的农奴主及其代理人所占有的土地和多余生产资料等进行赎买。实行保护工商业的政策,执行叛与未叛区别对待的政策,保护工商业者利益,组织贫困市民、游民,恢复商业和自由交换,保障了城乡供应,保证了社会秩序的迅速恢复和经济生活的正常进行。同时,认真做好统一战线工作,团结一切可以团结的力量,对反帝爱国、接受民主改革的农奴主及其代理人,分别安排适当的工作和生活。
IV. The People Have Become Masters of Their Own Affairs   四、实现了人民当家作主
Through democratic reform, feudal serfdom under theocracy in Tibet was abolished completely, bringing fundamental changes to the Tibetan social system. It was a historic leap. Due to democratic reform, about one million serfs were liberated. They gained personal freedom and became masters of the new society. The completion of the reform laid a solid foundation for the establishment of socialism in Tibet. 民主改革彻底废除了政教合一的封建农奴制,使西藏社会制度发生了根本性变化,实现了历史飞跃。通过改革,百万农奴翻身解放,获得了人身自由,成了新社会的主人。改革的全面完成,为在西藏建立社会主义制度打下了坚实基础。
– One million serfs were liberated and gained personal freedom. --百万农奴翻身解放获得人身自由
When feudal land ownership was abolished in democratic reform, serfs were no longer treated arbitrarily by serf owners as their private property, and the personal ownership of serfs by serf owners came to an end. 民主改革废除了封建土地所有制,农奴不再被当作农奴主的私有财产随意支配,农奴主对农奴的人身占有失去赖以存在的基础。
Tibet's democratic reform destroyed the institutional shackles which infringed serfs' rights to subsistence, marriage, migration, residence, work, personal freedom, human dignity, and education. Thanks to this reform, one million serfs gained true personal freedom. Anna Louise Strong, a renowned American journalist and activist, included the remarks by a serf interviewee in her book When Serfs Stood up in Tibet: “Always I wanted to send my son to school to learn to read and to have some trade like a tailor. This was impossible, but now my son has gone to study in the interior and when he comes back he will be a skilled worker for a factory. He will not be weighed down by all those things that weighed down my head.” 民主改革砸碎了侵犯农奴生存、婚嫁、流动、居住、劳动、人身自由、人格尊严、接受教育等权利的制度枷锁,百万农奴实现了真正的人身解放。美国著名作家安娜·路易斯·斯特朗在《百万农奴站起来》一书中记录了受访农奴对获得人身自由的描述:“我原来总想送儿子上学识字,学点手艺,如裁缝什么的,可在过去是不可能的。如今他已在内地上学了,将来回来,会成为有技术的工人,他再也不用像我那样,被繁重的负担压弯了腰。”
...... 民主改革废除了寺庙的一切封建特权。僧尼获得了平等权利和自由掌握自己命运的权利,许多处于底层的僧尼冲破束缚,还俗返家。仅甘丹寺就有300多名要求回家或就地还俗的僧人,政府按照路途远近分别发给足够的路费和安家费。同时,将要求参加工作的13名青年僧人介绍到拉萨百货公司当售货员,选送了一些年幼的僧人去学校读书。对于愿意继续留在甘丹寺的312名僧人,做了保障日常生活的安排。民主改革还废除了寺庙向宗(县)、谿卡(庄园)、部落摊派僧额的制度,禁止寺庙强迫群众当僧人。
 --建立人民政权行使当家作主权利
 1959年3月28日,国务院宣布解散西藏地方政府,与此同时,昌都地区人民解放委员会、班禅堪布会议厅委员会也相继被撤销和结束工作。自此,西藏结束了几种政权并存的局面。在西藏自治区筹备委员会的领导下,西藏各级人民政权逐步建立。1959年7月中旬,西藏第一个乡级农会凯松农民协会和第一个县级农会乃东县农民协会先后成立。昔日的农奴当选为农会主席和农会委员,带领广大群众进行民主改革。到1960年底,西藏建立乡级政权1009个,区级政权283个,县级政权78个,专区(市)级政权8个,藏族和其他少数民族干部达到1万多人,4400多名翻身农奴成为基层干部。1961年下半年,西藏各地开始实行普选,获得翻身的广大农奴彻底改变了昔日“会说话的工具”的地位,第一次以主人翁的姿态登上西藏的政治舞台,成为新西藏的主人,开始享有宪法和有关法律所赋予的旧社会所没有的最广泛的民主权利,以高涨的政治热情投入到选举工作中,选举产生了基层各级权力机关和政府。在西藏历史上,首次实现了通过行使选举权和被选举权,民主选举产生各级地方政权。到1965年7月,普选工作基本完成,普选出的2600多名人民代表中,贫困农奴就有2200人。江孜县的选民把选民证称作“当家作主证”,把选举看成一件大喜事,积极主动地参加人民代表的选举工作。
 ......

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