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Forest Law of the People's Republic of China (2019 Revision) [Not Yet Effective]
中华人民共和国森林法(2019修订) [尚未生效]
【法宝引证码】

Order of the President of the People's Republic of China 

中华人民共和国主席令

(No. 39) (第三十九号)

The Forest Law of the People's Republic of China as revised and adopted at the 15th session of the Standing Committee of the Thirteenth National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on December 28, 2019, is hereby issued and shall come into force on July 1, 2020. 中华人民共和国森林法》已由中华人民共和国第十三届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十五次会议于2019年12月28日修订通过,现予公布,自2020年7月1日起施行。
President of the People's Republic of China: Xi Jinping 中华人民共和国主席 习近平
December 28, 2019 2019年12月28日
Forest Law of the People's Republic of China 中华人民共和国森林法
(Adopted at the 7th session of the Standing Committee of the Sixth National People's Congress on September 20, 1984 Amended for the first time according to the Decision to Amend the Forest Law of the People's Republic of China法宝 at the 2nd session of the Standing Committee of the Ninth National People's Congress on April 29, 1998 Amended for the second time according to the Decision to Amend Some Laws at the 10th session of the Standing Committee of the Eleventh National People's Congress on August 27, 2009 Revised at the 15th session of the Standing Committee of the Thirteenth National People's Congress on December 28, 2019) (1984年9月20日第六届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第七次会议通过 根据1998年4月29日第九届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二次会议 《关于修改〈中华人民共和国森林法〉的决定》第一次修正 根据2009年8月27日第十一届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十次会议 《关于修改部分法律的决定》第二次修正 2019年12月28日第十三届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十五次会议修订)
Contents 目录
Chapter I General Provisions 第一章 总则
Chapter II Forest Rights 第二章 森林权属
Chapter III Development Plans 第三章 发展规划
Chapter IV Forest Protection 第四章 森林保护
Chapter V Afforestation and Greening 第五章 造林绿化
Chapter VI Operations and Management 第六章 经营管理
Chapter VII Supervisory Inspection 第七章 监督检查
Chapter VIII Legal Liability 第八章 法律责任
Chapter IX Supplemental Provisions 第九章 附则
Chapter I General Provisions 

第一章 总则

Article 1 This Law is enacted for the purposes of implementing the concept that lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets, protecting, cultivating, and reasonably utilizing forest resources, accelerating land greening, protecting forest ecological security, building ecological civilization, and achieving the harmonious coexistence of humanity and nature.   第一条 为了践行绿水青山就是金山银山理念,保护、培育和合理利用森林资源,加快国土绿化,保障森林生态安全,建设生态文明,实现人与自然和谐共生,制定本法。
Article 2 This Law shall apply to the protection, cultivation, and utilization of forests and trees and the operations and management activities of forest, trees, and woodlands conducted in the territory of the People's Republic of China.   第二条 在中华人民共和国领域内从事森林、林木的保护、培育、利用和森林、林木、林地的经营管理活动,适用本法。
Article 3 Forest resources shall be protected, cultivated, and utilized in such a manner as to respect and conform with nature, in adherence to the principles of according top priority to the ecology and protection, combining protection with cultivation, and sustainable development.   第三条 保护、培育、利用森林资源应当尊重自然、顺应自然,坚持生态优先、保护优先、保育结合、可持续发展的原则。
Article 4 The state shall implement an objective responsibility system and an evaluation and assessment system for the protection and development of forest resources. Higher people's governments shall evaluate the completion status of the objectives of the protection and development of forest resources, forest fire prevention, and major forest pest control by lower people's governments and publicly disclose the evaluation results.   第四条 国家实行森林资源保护发展目标责任制和考核评价制度。上级人民政府对下级人民政府完成森林资源保护发展目标和森林防火、重大林业有害生物防治工作的情况进行考核,并公开考核结果。
Local people's governments may establish a forest director system as needed for the protection and development of forest resources in their respective administrative areas. 地方人民政府可以根据本行政区域森林资源保护发展的需要,建立林长制。
Article 5 The state shall adopt fiscal, tax, financial, and other measures to support the protection and development of forest resources. People's governments at all levels shall guarantee investment in the protection and restoration of the forest ecology and promote forestry development.   第五条 国家采取财政、税收、金融等方面的措施,支持森林资源保护发展。各级人民政府应当保障森林生态保护修复的投入,促进林业发展。
Article 6 The state shall, with the aim of developing a stable, sound, fine, and efficient forest ecosystem, implement operations and management by classifications of public welfare forests and commercial forests, highlight leading functions, exert multiple functions, and achieve the sustainable utilization of forest resources.   第六条 国家以培育稳定、健康、优质、高效的森林生态系统为目标,对公益林和商品林实行分类经营管理,突出主导功能,发挥多种功能,实现森林资源永续利用。
Article 7 The state shall establish a forest ecological benefit compensation system, increase the support for the protection of public welfare forests, improve the transfer payment policy for key ecological functional zones, and guide the people's governments in beneficiary areas and forest ecological protection areas in making ecological benefit compensation by consultation or otherwise.   第七条 国家建立森林生态效益补偿制度,加大公益林保护支持力度,完善重点生态功能区转移支付政策,指导受益地区和森林生态保护地区人民政府通过协商等方式进行生态效益补偿。
Article 8 The State Council and the people's governments of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government may implement more preferential policies for forest protection and forestry development in ethnic autonomous areas in accordance with the provisions on the autonomy of ethnic autonomous areas issued by the state.   第八条 国务院和省、自治区、直辖市人民政府可以依照国家对民族自治地方自治权的规定,对民族自治地方的森林保护和林业发展实行更加优惠的政策。
Article 9 The forestry department of the State Council shall be in charge of the national forestry work. The forestry departments of local people's governments at or above the county level shall be in charge of the forestry work in their respective administrative areas.   第九条 国务院林业主管部门主管全国林业工作。县级以上地方人民政府林业主管部门,主管本行政区域的林业工作。
Township people's governments may designate relevant institutions or appoint full-time and part-time personnel to undertake forestry-related work. 乡镇人民政府可以确定相关机构或者设置专职、兼职人员承担林业相关工作。
Article 10 Afforestation and forest protection are the obligations of citizens. People's governments at all levels shall organize and conduct voluntary tree planting campaigns among the whole people.   第十条 植树造林、保护森林,是公民应尽的义务。各级人民政府应当组织开展全民义务植树活动。
Tree Planting Day falls on March 12 every year. 每年三月十二日为植树节。
Article 11 The state shall adopt measures to encourage and support scientific research on forestry and promote advanced and applicable forestry technologies, so as to improve the level of forestry science and technology.   第十一条 国家采取措施,鼓励和支持林业科学研究,推广先进适用的林业技术,提高林业科学技术水平。
Article 12 People's governments at all levels shall strengthen publicity, education, and dissemination of knowledge about the protection of forest resources and support autonomous people's organizations at primary level, news media, forestry enterprises and public institutions, and volunteers, among others, in conducting forest resource protection publicity campaigns.   第十二条 各级人民政府应当加强森林资源保护的宣传教育和知识普及工作,鼓励和支持基层群众性自治组织、新闻媒体、林业企业事业单位、志愿者等开展森林资源保护宣传活动。
Education authorities and schools shall educate students on the protection of forest resources. 教育行政部门、学校应当对学生进行森林资源保护教育。
Article 13 Any organization or individual that has made outstanding achievements in afforestation and greening, forest protection, agricultural operations related to and management of forests, and scientific research on forestry shall be commended and rewarded in accordance with the relevant provisions issued by the state.   第十三条 对在造林绿化、森林保护、森林经营管理以及林业科学研究等方面成绩显著的组织或者个人,按照国家有关规定给予表彰、奖励。
Chapter II Forest Rights 

第二章 森林权属

Article 14 Forest resources belong to the state, except those that are collectively owned under the law.   第十四条 森林资源属于国家所有,由法律规定属于集体所有的除外。
Ownership of state forest resources shall be exercised by the State Council on behalf of the state. The State Council may authorize the natural resources department of the State Council to uniformly perform the duties of the owner of state forest resources. 国家所有的森林资源的所有权由国务院代表国家行使。国务院可以授权国务院自然资源主管部门统一履行国有森林资源所有者职责。
Article 15 For ownership and rights to use of woodlands and forests and trees thereon, the real property registration authorities shall uniformly make registration and records and issue certificates. For the forests, trees, and woodlands in state key forest areas (hereinafter referred to as the “key forest areas”) determined by the State Council, the natural resources department of the State Council shall be responsible for registration.   第十五条 林地和林地上的森林、林木的所有权、使用权,由不动产登记机构统一登记造册,核发证书。国务院确定的国家重点林区(以下简称重点林区)的森林、林木和林地,由国务院自然资源主管部门负责登记。
The lawful rights and interests of the owners and users of forests, trees, and woodlands shall be protected by law, without being violated by any organization or individual. 森林、林木、林地的所有者和使用者的合法权益受法律保护,任何组织和个人不得侵犯。
The owners and users of forests, trees, and woodlands shall lawfully protect and reasonably utilize forests, trees, and woodlands in accordance with the law and neither illegally change the use of woodlands nor destroy forests, trees, and woodlands. 森林、林木、林地的所有者和使用者应当依法保护和合理利用森林、林木、林地,不得非法改变林地用途和毁坏森林、林木、林地。
Article 16 State woodlands and the forests and trees thereon may be so determined by law as to be used by forest operators. Rights to use state woodlands and the forests and trees thereon acquired by forest operators in accordance with the law may be transferred, leased, and contributed to capital at appraised value, among others, with approval. Specific measures shall be formulated by the State Council.   第十六条 国家所有的林地和林地上的森林、林木可以依法确定给林业经营者使用。林业经营者依法取得的国有林地和林地上的森林、林木的使用权,经批准可以转让、出租、作价出资等。具体办法由国务院制定。
Forest operators shall perform their obligations to protect and cultivate forest resources, ensure the stable growth of state forest resources, and improve the ecological functions of forests. 林业经营者应当履行保护、培育森林资源的义务,保证国有森林资源稳定增长,提高森林生态功能。
Article 17 Where woodlands owned collectively or owned by the state and used by farmers collectively under the law (hereinafter referred to as the “collective woodlands”) are subject to a conventional usufruct for agricultural operations, the contractor shall enjoy a conventional usufruct on woodlands for agricultural operations and ownership of the trees on the woodlands subject to the conventional usufruct, unless otherwise provided by contract. The contractor may circulate his or her usufruct on the woodlands and ownership and rights to use of the trees by leasing (subcontracting), in payment for shares, by transfer, or otherwise, according to the law.   第十七条 集体所有和国家所有依法由农民集体使用的林地(以下简称集体林地)实行承包经营的,承包方享有林地承包经营权和承包林地上的林木所有权,合同另有约定的从其约定。承包方可以依法采取出租(转包)、入股、转让等方式流转林地经营权、林木所有权和使用权。
Article 18 For collective woodlands not under a conventional usufruct for agricultural operations and the trees thereon, the rural collective economic organization shall organize operations in a unified manner. With the consent of more than two-thirds of the members of the villagers' meeting of the members of the collective economic organization or two-thirds of villagers' representatives, the usufruct on the woodlands and ownership and rights to use of the trees may be circulated according to the law by bidding, auction, public consultation, and other means.   第十八条 未实行承包经营的集体林地以及林地上的林木,由农村集体经济组织统一经营。经本集体经济组织成员的村民会议三分之二以上成员或者三分之二以上村民代表同意并公示,可以通过招标、拍卖、公开协商等方式依法流转林地经营权、林木所有权和使用权。
Article 19 For the circulation of a usufruct on collective woodlands, a written contract shall be signed. A contract for the circulation of a usufruct on woodlands generally contains the rights and obligations of the parties to the circulation, period of circulation, price of circulation and methods of payment, disposition of trees and fixed production facilities on the woodlands at the expiry of the period of circulation, liability for breach of contract, and other contents.   第十九条 集体林地经营权流转应当签订书面合同。林地经营权流转合同一般包括流转双方的权利义务、流转期限、流转价款及支付方式、流转期限届满林地上的林木和固定生产设施的处置、违约责任等内容。
If a transferee violates the law or the contract, causing serious damage to the forests, trees, or woodlands, the landowner or contractor shall have the right to recover the usufruct on the woodlands. 受让方违反法律规定或者合同约定造成森林、林木、林地严重毁坏的,发包方或者承包方有权收回林地经营权。
Article 20 For the trees planted by state-owned enterprises, public institutions, government agencies, groups, and the military, the planting entities shall conduct management and protection and control the income generated by the trees in accordance with the provisions issued by the state.   第二十条 国有企业事业单位、机关、团体、部队营造的林木,由营造单位管护并按照国家规定支配林木收益。
The trees planted by rural residents around their buildings and on plots of cropland and hilly land allotted for private use belong to the individuals. The trees planted by urban residents in the courtyards of their own buildings belong to the individuals. 农村居民在房前屋后、自留地、自留山种植的林木,归个人所有。城镇居民在自有房屋的庭院内种植的林木,归个人所有。
The trees planted in barren hills, land, and beaches fit for forests, owned collectively or by the state, under a contract awarded to a collective or an individual belong to the collective or individual, unless otherwise provided by contract. 集体或者个人承包国家所有和集体所有的宜林荒山荒地荒滩营造的林木,归承包的集体或者个人所有;合同另有约定的从其约定。
The trees planted by any other organization or individual belong to the planter, and the planter shall enjoy the income generated by the trees, unless otherwise provided by contract. 其他组织或者个人营造的林木,依法由营造者所有并享有林木收益;合同另有约定的从其约定。
Article 21 Where the expropriation or requisition of woodlands and trees are compellingly entailed by the public interest such as ecological protection and infrastructure construction, approval procedures shall be completed in accordance with the laws and administrative regulations such as the Land Administration Law of the People's Republic of China卡在了奇怪的地方, and equitable and reasonable compensation shall be made.   第二十一条 为了生态保护、基础设施建设等公共利益的需要,确需征收、征用林地、林木的,应当依照《中华人民共和国土地管理法》等法律、行政法规的规定办理审批手续,并给予公平、合理的补偿。
Article 22 Any dispute over ownership and rights to use of trees and woodlands between entities shall be handled by the people's government at or above the county level in accordance with the law.   第二十二条 单位之间发生的林木、林地所有权和使用权争议,由县级以上人民政府依法处理。
Any dispute over ownership and rights to use of trees and woodlands between individuals or between an individual and an entity shall be handled by the township people's government or the people's government at or above the county level in accordance with the law. 个人之间、个人与单位之间发生的林木所有权和林地使用权争议,由乡镇人民政府或者县级以上人民政府依法处理。
Any party dissatisfied with the handling decision of the relevant people's government may sue in a people's court within 30 days of receiving the notice of the handling decision. 当事人对有关人民政府的处理决定不服的,可以自接到处理决定通知之日起三十日内,向人民法院起诉。
If a dispute over the rights to trees and woodlands is pending, neither party may log the trees in dispute or change the status of the woodlands, except as needed for forest fire prevention, forest pest control, and major national infrastructure construction, among others. 在林木、林地权属争议解决前,除因森林防火、林业有害生物防治、国家重大基础设施建设等需要外,当事人任何一方不得砍伐有争议的林木或者改变林地现状。
Chapter III Development Plans 

第三章 发展规划

Article 23 People's governments at or above the county level shall incorporate the protection of forest resources and forestry development into their national economic and social development plans.   第二十三条北大法宝 县级以上人民政府应当将森林资源保护和林业发展纳入国民经济和社会发展规划。
Article 24 People's governments at or above the county level shall implement the requirements for spatial development and protection, reasonably plan the structure and distribution of the protection and utilization of forest resources, formulate goals of the protection and development of forest resources, increase forest coverage and accumulation, and improve the quality and stability of forest ecosystems.   第二十四条 县级以上人民政府应当落实国土空间开发保护要求,合理规划森林资源保护利用结构和布局,制定森林资源保护发展目标,提高森林覆盖率、森林蓄积量,提升森林生态系统质量和稳定性。
Article 25 The forestry departments of people's governments at or above the county level shall prepare forestry development plans in accordance with the goals of the protection and development of forest resources. A lower forestry development plan shall be prepared in accordance with a higher forestry development plan.   第二十五条 县级以上人民政府林业主管部门应当根据森林资源保护发展目标,编制林业发展规划。下级林业发展规划依据上级林业发展规划编制。
Article 26 The forestry departments of people's governments at or above the county level may prepare special plans in relation to the protection and utilization of woodlands, afforestation and greening, forest operations, protection of natural forests, and the like, in light of local actual circumstances.   第二十六条 县级以上人民政府林业主管部门可以结合本地实际,编制林地保护利用、造林绿化、森林经营、天然林保护等相关专项规划。
Article 27 The state shall establish a forest resources survey and monitoring system to survey, monitor, assess, and regularly release the status and changes of forest resources nationwide.   第二十七条 国家建立森林资源调查监测制度,对全国森林资源现状及变化情况进行调查、监测和评价,并定期公布。
Chapter IV Forest Protection 

第四章 森林保护

Article 28 The state shall strengthen the protection of forest resources and exert the various functions of forests such as water storage and soil conservation, climate regulation, environmental improvement, biodiversity protection, and provision of forest products.   第二十八条 国家加强森林资源保护,发挥森林蓄水保土、调节气候、改善环境、维护生物多样性和提供林产品等多种功能。
Article 29 Central and local finance authorities shall separately arrange funds for the planting, tending, protection, and management of public welfare forests and financial compensation payable to holders of rights to non-state public welfare forests and grant the funds for the designated use. The specific measures shall be formulated by the finance department of the State Council in conjunction with the forestry department.   第二十九条 中央和地方财政分别安排资金,用于公益林的营造、抚育、保护、管理和非国有公益林权利人的经济补偿等,实行专款专用。具体办法由国务院财政部门会同林业主管部门制定。
Article 30 The state shall support the transformation and development of key forest areas and the protection and restoration of forest resources, improve production and living conditions, and promote the economic and social development of the regions where they are located. Key forest areas shall enjoy policies such as transfer payments for key national ecological functional areas as required.   第三十条 国家支持重点林区的转型发展和森林资源保护修复,改善生产生活条件,促进所在地区经济社会发展。重点林区按照规定享受国家重点生态功能区转移支付等政策。
Article 31 The state shall establish a system of protected areas with national parks as its mainstay in typical forest ecological areas in different natural areas, forest areas where precious animals and plants grow and reproduce, natural tropical rain forest areas, and other natural forest areas of special protection value, so as to strengthen protection and management.   第三十一条 国家在不同自然地带的典型森林生态地区、珍贵动物和植物生长繁殖的林区、天然热带雨林区和具有特殊保护价值的其他天然林区,建立以国家公园为主体的自然保护地体系,加强保护管理。
The state shall support the protection and restoration of forest resources in ecologically fragile areas. 国家支持生态脆弱地区森林资源的保护修复。
People's governments at or above the county level shall adopt measures to protect wild floral resources with special values. 县级以上人民政府应当采取措施对具有特殊价值的野生植物资源予以保护。
Article 32 The state shall implement a comprehensive protection system for natural forests, strictly limit the logging of natural forests, strengthen the building of capabilities to manage and protect natural forests, protect and restore natural forest resources, and gradually improve the ecological functions of natural forests. Specific measures shall be developed by the State Council.   第三十二条 国家实行天然林全面保护制度,严格限制天然林采伐,加强天然林管护能力建设,保护和修复天然林资源,逐步提高天然林生态功能。具体办法由国务院规定。
Article 33 Local people's governments at all levels shall arrange for their relevant departments to establish forest protection organizations responsible for forest protection work; construct forest protection facilities as actually needed and strengthen protection of forest resources; and urge relevant organizations to conclude forest protection conventions, arrange for the members of the public to protect forests, delineate forest protection responsibility areas, and appoint full-time and part-time forest rangers.   第三十三条 地方各级人民政府应当组织有关部门建立护林组织,负责护林工作;根据实际需要建设护林设施,加强森林资源保护;督促相关组织订立护林公约、组织群众护林、划定护林责任区、配备专职或者兼职护林员。
People's governments at the county or township level may employ forest rangers, whose main duties are to patrol forests and discover, promptly action, and report to local forestry and other relevant authorities fires and forest pests. 县级或者乡镇人民政府可以聘用护林员,其主要职责是巡护森林,发现火情、林业有害生物以及破坏森林资源的行为,应当及时处理并向当地林业等有关部门报告。
Article 34 Local people's governments at all levels shall be responsible for the forest fire prevention work in their respective administrative areas and bring people's prevention into play; and people's governments at or above the county level shall arrange for and lead emergency management, forestry, public security, and other departments to closely cooperate in effectively conducting the scientific prevention, fighting, and disposal of forest fires in accordance with the division of functions:   第三十四条 地方各级人民政府负责本行政区域的森林防火工作,发挥群防作用;县级以上人民政府组织领导应急管理、林业、公安等部门按照职责分工密切配合做好森林火灾的科学预防、扑救和处置工作:
(1) Organizing forest fire prevention publicity campaigns to disseminate knowledge about forest fire prevention. (一)组织开展森林防火宣传活动,普及森林防火知识;
(2) Delimiting forest fire protection zones and prescribing forest fire prevention periods. (二)划定森林防火区,规定森林防火期;
(3) Building fire prevention facilities equipped with fire prevention equipment and materials. (三)设置防火设施,配备防灭火装备和物资;
(4) Establishing a forest fire monitoring and early warning system to eliminate hidden risks in a timely manner. (四)建立森林火灾监测预警体系,及时消除隐患;
(5) Developing an emergency plan for forest fires so as to immediately organize a fire fighting if a forest fire occurs. (五)制定森林火灾应急预案,发生森林火灾,立即组织扑救;
(6) Guaranteeing funds required to prevent and fight forest fires. (六)保障预防和扑救森林火灾所需费用。
The national comprehensive fire protection and rescue force shall be responsible for the forest fire fighting and rescue tasks and prevention-related work as prescribed by the state. 国家综合性消防救援队伍承担国家规定的森林火灾扑救任务和预防相关工作。
Article 35 The forestry departments of people's governments at or above the county level shall be responsible for the monitoring, quarantine, and prevention and control of forest pests in their respective administrative areas.   第三十五条 县级以上人民政府林业主管部门负责本行政区域的林业有害生物的监测、检疫和防治。
The forestry departments of people's governments at or above the provincial level shall be responsible for determining quarantine pests of forest plants and their products and delineating epidemic areas and protected areas. 省级以上人民政府林业主管部门负责确定林业植物及其产品的检疫性有害生物,划定疫区和保护区。
The prevention and control of major forest pest disasters shall be under the local people's government responsibility system. In the event of an epidemic, hazardous, or other major forest pest disaster, the local people's government shall promptly organize its eradication. 重大林业有害生物灾害防治实行地方人民政府负责制。发生暴发性、危险性等重大林业有害生物灾害时,当地人民政府应当及时组织除治。
A forest operator shall, with the support and guidance of the government, prevent and control forest pests within the scope of its operations and management. 林业经营者在政府支持引导下,对其经营管理范围内的林业有害生物进行防治。
Article 36 The state shall protect woodlands, strictly control the conversion of woodlands to non-woodlands, control total woodland occupation, so as to ensure that the quantity of woodlands is not in decline. The woodlands occupied by various construction projects shall not exceed the total woodland occupation control quota on the administrative area.   第三十六条 国家保护林地,严格控制林地转为非林地,实行占用林地总量控制,确保林地保有量不减少。各类建设项目占用林地不得超过本行政区域的占用林地总量控制指标。
Article 37 Mineral exploration, mining, and other project constructions shall occupy no or minimum woodlands; and if occupying woodlands is compellingly necessary, the approval of the forestry department of the people's government at or above the county level shall be obtained, and the approval procedures for construction land shall be initiated according to the law.   第三十七条 矿藏勘查、开采以及其他各类工程建设,应当不占或者少占林地;确需占用林地的,应当经县级以上人民政府林业主管部门审核同意,依法办理建设用地审批手续。
An entity occupying woodlands shall pay forest restoration fees. Measures for the administration of the collection and use of forest restoration fees shall be formulated by the finance department of the State Council in conjunction with the forestry department. 占用林地的单位应当缴纳森林植被恢复费。森林植被恢复费征收使用管理办法由国务院财政部门会同林业主管部门制定。
The forestry departments of people's governments at or above the county level shall so arrange afforestation and forest restoration as required as to enable the area of afforestation not to be less than the decrease in the area of forests as a result of the occupation of woodlands. Higher forestry authorities shall regularly urge lower forestry authorities to organize afforestation and forest restoration and conduct inspections. 县级以上人民政府林业主管部门应当按照规定安排植树造林,恢复森林植被,植树造林面积不得少于因占用林地而减少的森林植被面积。上级林业主管部门应当定期督促下级林业主管部门组织植树造林、恢复森林植被,并进行检查。
Article 38 Where the temporary use of woodlands is required, the approval of the forestry department of the people's government at or above the county level shall be obtained; and the period of temporary use of woodlands shall generally not exceed two years, and no permanent building may be constructed on the woodland in temporary use.   第三十八条 需要临时使用林地的,应当经县级以上人民政府林业主管部门批准;临时使用林地的期限一般不超过二年,并不得在临时使用的林地上修建永久性建筑物。
Within one year after the expiration of the temporary use of woodlands, the land user entity or individual shall restore vegetation and forestry production conditions. 临时使用林地期满后一年内,用地单位或者个人应当恢复植被和林业生产条件。
Article 39 Deforestation and reclamation, quarrying, sand quarrying, soil excavation, and other acts of destroying trees and woodlands shall be prohibited.   第三十九条 禁止毁林开垦、采石、采砂、采土以及其他毁坏林木和林地的行为。
Discharging into woodlands sewage and sludge containing heavy metals or other toxic and hazardous substances in excess of standards and dredged sediment, tailings, slag, and the like that may cause pollution to the woodlands shall be prohibited. 禁止向林地排放重金属或者其他有毒有害物质含量超标的污水、污泥,以及可能造成林地污染的清淤底泥、尾矿、矿渣等。
The harvest of firewood, destruction of seedlings, and grazing in young forests shall be prohibited. 禁止在幼林地砍柴、毁苗、放牧。
Moving or damaging forest protection signs without authorization shall be prohibited. 禁止擅自移动或者损坏森林保护标志。
Article 40 The state shall protect ancient, famous, and precious trees. Destroying ancient, famous, and precious trees and their natural environment shall be prohibited.   第四十条 国家保护古树名木和珍贵树木。禁止破坏古树名木和珍贵树木及其生存的自然环境。
Article 41 People's governments at all levels shall strengthen the construction of forestry infrastructure and apply advanced and applicable scientific and technological means, so as to improve their capabilities for forest fire prevention, prevention and control of forest pests, and other forest management and protection.   第四十一条 各级人民政府应当加强林业基础设施建设,应用先进适用的科技手段,提高森林防火、林业有害生物防治等森林管护能力。
All relevant entities shall strengthen forest management and protection. State-owned forestry enterprises and public institutions shall increase investment, strengthen forest fire prevention and the prevention and control of forest pests, and prevent and stop damage to forest resources. 各有关单位应当加强森林管护。国有林业企业事业单位应当加大投入,加强森林防火、林业有害生物防治,预防和制止破坏森林资源的行为。
Chapter V Afforestation and Greening 

第五章 造林绿化

Article 42 The state shall coordinate urban and rural afforestation and greening, launch large-scale land greening actions, green and beautify urban and rural areas, boost the construction of forest cities, promote rural revitalization, and build a beautiful homeland.   第四十二条 国家统筹城乡造林绿化,开展大规模国土绿化行动,绿化美化城乡,推动森林城市建设,促进乡村振兴,建设美丽家园。
Article 43 People's governments at all levels shall organize afforestation and greening across the spectrum of industries and among urban and rural residents.   第四十三条 各级人民政府应当组织各行各业和城乡居民造林绿化。
Barren hills, land, and beaches fit for forests shall be afforested and greened as organized by the forestry departments and other relevant competent departments of people's governments at or above the county level, if owned by the state, or by collective economic organizations, if collectively owned. 宜林荒山荒地荒滩,属于国家所有的,由县级以上人民政府林业主管部门和其他有关主管部门组织开展造林绿化;属于集体所有的,由集体经济组织组织开展造林绿化。
For urban planning areas, both sides of railways and highways, both sides of rivers, and the vicinity of lakes and reservoirs, the relevant competent authorities shall organize afforestation and greening according to the relevant provisions, in light of local conditions; and for industrial and mining areas, industrial parks, government agencies, land for school use, barracks, farms, ranches, and fisheries, the respective entities shall be responsible for afforestation and greening. Specific measures for organizing urban afforestation and greening shall be formulated by the State Council. 城市规划区内、铁路公路两侧、江河两侧、湖泊水库周围,由各有关主管部门按照有关规定因地制宜组织开展造林绿化;工矿区、工业园区、机关、学校用地,部队营区以及农场、牧场、渔场经营地区,由各该单位负责造林绿化。组织开展城市造林绿化的具体办法由国务院制定。
Barren hills, land, and beaches fit for forests owned by the state or collectively may be afforested and greened by entities or individuals on a contract basis. 国家所有和集体所有的宜林荒山荒地荒滩可以由单位或者个人承包造林绿化。
Article 44 The state shall encourage citizens to participate in afforestation and greening by planting trees, tending, management, protection, funding afforestation and cultivation, or otherwise.   第四十四条 国家鼓励公民通过植树造林、抚育管护、认建认养等方式参与造林绿化。
Article 45 People's governments at all levels, when organizing afforestation and greening, shall scientifically make plans, adapt to local conditions, optimize the structure of forest classifications and tree varieties, encourage the use of native tree varieties and superior tree varieties, create mixed forests, and improve the quality of afforestation and greening.   第四十五条 各级人民政府组织造林绿化,应当科学规划、因地制宜,优化林种、树种结构,鼓励使用乡土树种和林木良种、营造混交林,提高造林绿化质量。
A wholly or mainly state-invested afforestation and greening project shall use superior tree varieties in accordance with the provisions issued by the state. 国家投资或者以国家投资为主的造林绿化项目,应当按照国家规定使用林木良种。
Article 46 People's governments at all levels shall adopt measures focusing on natural restoration, combining natural restoration with artificial restoration, and scientifically protect and restore forest ecosystems. For newly planted young forests and other places where mountains shall be closed to cultivate forests shall be so closed by the local people's governments.   第四十六条 各级人民政府应当采取以自然恢复为主、自然恢复和人工修复相结合的措施,科学保护修复森林生态系统。新造幼林地和其他应当封山育林的地方,由当地人民政府组织封山育林。
People's governments at all levels shall systematically organize the implementation of restoration of arable land to woodlands and grasslands in respect of arable land requiring ecological restoration as determined by the State Council such as sloping arable land, severely desertified arable land, arable land facing severe rocky desertification, and heavily polluted arable land. 各级人民政府应当对国务院确定的坡耕地、严重沙化耕地、严重石漠化耕地、严重污染耕地等需要生态修复的耕地,有计划地组织实施退耕还林还草。
People's governments at all levels shall implement forest ecological restoration projects and restore vegetation in respect of natural factors-induced deserted and damaged mountains, degraded woodlands, and barren hills, land, and beaches fit for forests. 各级人民政府应当对自然因素等导致的荒废和受损山体、退化林地以及宜林荒山荒地荒滩,因地制宜实施森林生态修复工程,恢复植被。
Chapter VI Operations and Management 

第六章 经营管理

Article 47 The state shall, as needed for ecological protection, designate woodlands in an important forest ecological location or ecologically fragile, mainly intended to produce ecological benefits, and the forests thereon as public welfare forests. Woodlands and the forests thereon not so designated shall be commercial forests.   第四十七条 国家根据生态保护的需要,将森林生态区位重要或者生态状况脆弱,以发挥生态效益为主要目的的林地和林地上的森林划定为公益林。未划定为公益林的林地和林地上的森林属于商品林。
Article 48 Public welfare forests shall be designated and released by the State Council and the people's governments of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government.   第四十八条 公益林由国务院和省、自治区、直辖市人民政府划定并公布。
Woodlands and the forests thereon in the following areas shall be designated as public welfare forests: 下列区域的林地和林地上的森林,应当划定为公益林:
(1) The catchment area of the headwaters of important rivers. (一)重要江河源头汇水区域;
(2) Protected areas on both sides of the stems and tributaries of important rivers and in drinking water sources. (二)重要江河干流及支流两岸、饮用水水源地保护区;
(3) The vicinity of important wetlands and reservoirs. (三)重要湿地和重要水库周围;
(4) Nature reserves for forests and terrestrial wildlife. (四)森林和陆生野生动物类型的自然保护区;
(5) The backbone of wind protection and dune stabilization forests in areas facing severe desertification and soil erosion. (五)荒漠化和水土流失严重地区的防风固沙林基干林带;
(6) The backbone of coastal shelterbelts. (六)沿海防护林基干林带;
(7) Undeveloped primary forest areas. (七)未开发利用的原始林地区;
(8) Areas otherwise required to be designated. (八)需要划定的其他区域。
If the designation as public welfare forests relates to non-state woodlands, a written agreement shall be concluded with the right holder, with reasonable compensation being made. 公益林划定涉及非国有林地的,应当与权利人签订书面协议,并给予合理补偿。
Any adjustment to public welfare forests shall be subject to the approval of the original designating authority and be released. 公益林进行调整的,应当经原划定机关同意,并予以公布。
Measures for the designation as and administration of national public welfare forests shall be formulated by the State Council; and measures for the designation as and administration of local public welfare forests shall be formulated by the people's governments of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government. 国家级公益林划定和管理的办法由国务院制定;地方级公益林划定和管理的办法由省、自治区、直辖市人民政府制定。
Article 49 The state shall provide strict protection for public welfare forests.   第四十九条 国家对公益林实施严格保护。
The forestry departments of people's governments at or above the county level shall systematically arrange for public welfare forest operators to adopt stand improvement, tending, and other measures for low-quality and low-benefit public welfare forests with trivial ecological functions such as sparse forests and non-conforming forests, so as to improve the quality and ecological protection functions of public welfare forests. 县级以上人民政府林业主管部门应当有计划地组织公益林经营者对公益林中生态功能低下的疏林、残次林等低质低效林,采取林分改造、森林抚育等措施,提高公益林的质量和生态保护功能。
Under the premise of meeting the ecological location protection requirements for public welfare forests and not affecting the ecological functions of public welfare forests, upon scientific justification, the woodland resources and landscape resources of public welfare forests may be reasonably used to moderately develop forest farming and forest tourism, among others. The use of public welfare forests to carry out the above activities shall be in strict accordance with the relevant provisions issued by the state. 在符合公益林生态区位保护要求和不影响公益林生态功能的前提下,经科学论证,可以合理利用公益林林地资源和森林景观资源,适度开展林下经济、森林旅游等。利用公益林开展上述活动应当严格遵守国家有关规定。
Article 50 The state shall encourage the development of the following commercial forests: 

卧槽不见了

  第五十条 国家鼓励发展下列商品林:
(1) Forests mainly intended to produce timber. (一)以生产木材为主要目的的森林;
(2) Forests mainly intended to produce forest products such as fruits, oil, beverages, spices, industrial raw materials, and medicinal materials. (二)以生产果品、油料、饮料、调料、工业原料和药材等林产品为主要目的的森林;
(3) Forests mainly intended to produce fuel and other biomass energy. (三)以生产燃料和其他生物质能源为主要目的的森林;
(4) Other forests mainly intended to produce economic benefits. (四)其他以发挥经济效益为主要目的的森林。
The state shall, under the premise of ensuring ecological security, encourage the construction of fast-growing, high-yield, and precious tree varieties and large-diameter timber forests so as to increase timber reserves and ensure the security of timber supply. 在保障生态安全的前提下,国家鼓励建设速生丰产、珍贵树种和大径级用材林,增加林木储备,保障木材供给安全。
Article 51 Commercial forests shall be placed under the independent operations by forest operators in accordance with the law. Without prejudice to the ecology, intensive operating measures may be adopted to reasonably use forests, trees, and woodlands and improve the economic benefits of commercial forests.   第五十一条 商品林由林业经营者依法自主经营。在不破坏生态的前提下,可以采取集约化经营措施,合理利用森林、林木、林地,提高商品林经济效益。
Article 52 For the construction of any of the following engineering facilities on woodlands directly serving forestry production and operations, if the standards required by the relevant state departments are met, the approval of the forestry department of the people's government at or above the county level shall be obtained, without approval procedures for construction land being required to be initiated; and if woodlands are occupied in excess of the needs of the standards, the approval procedures for construction land shall be initiated according to the law:   第五十二条 在林地上修筑下列直接为林业生产经营服务的工程设施,符合国家有关部门规定的标准的,由县级以上人民政府林业主管部门批准,不需要办理建设用地审批手续;超出标准需要占用林地的,应当依法办理建设用地审批手续:
(1) Facilities for the cultivation or production of seeds or nursery stock. (一)培育、生产种子、苗木的设施;
(2) Facilities for the storage of seeds, nursery stock, or timber. (二)贮存种子、苗木、木材的设施;
(3) Skidding trails, logging trails, fire protection patrol trails, and forest trails. (三)集材道、运材道、防火巡护道、森林步道;
(4) Forestry scientific research and popular science education facilities. (四)林业科研、科普教育设施;
(5) Facilities for wild fauna and flora protection, forest protection, prevention and control of forest pests, forest fire prevention, and timber quarantine. (五)野生动植物保护、护林、林业有害生物防治、森林防火、木材检疫的设施;
(6) Water, power, heat, gas, and communication infrastructure. (六)供水、供电、供热、供气、通讯基础设施;
(7) Other engineering facilities directly serving forestry production. (七)其他直接为林业生产服务的工程设施。
Article 53 State-owned forestry enterprises and public institutions shall prepare forest operation plans, specify operating measures for the cultivation, management, and protection of forests, and implement the measures with the approval of the forestry departments of people's governments at or above the county level. The forest operation plans for key forest areas shall be implemented with the approval of the forestry department of the State Council.   第五十三条 国有林业企业事业单位应当编制森林经营方案,明确森林培育和管护的经营措施,报县级以上人民政府林业主管部门批准后实施。重点林区的森林经营方案由国务院林业主管部门批准后实施。
The state shall support and guide other forest operators in preparing forest operation plans. 国家支持、引导其他林业经营者编制森林经营方案。
Specific measures for the preparation of forest operation plans shall be formulated by the forestry department of the State Council. 编制森林经营方案的具体办法由国务院林业主管部门制定。
Article 54 The state shall strictly control annual forest harvest. The forestry departments of people's governments of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government shall prepare annual harvest quotas for their respective administrative areas based on the principles of consumption lower than growth and operations and management by forest classification, request comments from the forestry department of the State Council, release and implement the quotas with the approval the people's governments at the same level, and file the quotas with the State Council. The annual harvest quotas for key forest areas shall be prepared by the forestry department of the State Council and released and implemented with the approval of the State Council.   第五十四条 国家严格控制森林年采伐量。省、自治区、直辖市人民政府林业主管部门根据消耗量低于生长量和森林分类经营管理的原则,编制本行政区域的年采伐限额,经征求国务院林业主管部门意见,报本级人民政府批准后公布实施,并报国务院备案。重点林区的年采伐限额,由国务院林业主管部门编制,报国务院批准后公布实施。
Article 55 Forests and trees shall be harvested in according with the following provisions:   第五十五条 采伐森林、林木应当遵守下列规定:
(1) Public welfare forests may be harvested only for tending, regeneration, and improvement of low-quality and low-benefit forests, or as entailed by scientific research or experiments, prevention and control of forest pests, construction of forest fire prevention facilities, construction of biological firebreaks, and natural disasters, among others. (一)公益林只能进行抚育、更新和低质低效林改造性质的采伐。但是,因科研或者实验、防治林业有害生物、建设护林防火设施、营造生物防火隔离带、遭受自然灾害等需要采伐的除外。
(2) For commercial forests, different harvest methods shall be adopted based on different circumstances, the area of clearcutting shall be strictly controlled, and harvest and tending shall be concurrently planned and implemented. (二)商品林应当根据不同情况,采取不同采伐方式,严格控制皆伐面积,伐育同步规划实施。
(3) The harvest of trees in nature reserves shall be prohibited. An exception is made for bamboo forests that must be harvested because of special circumstances such as prevention and control of forest pests, forest fire prevention, maintenance of the living environment of main protected objects, and natural disasters and that are located in experimental zones. (三)自然保护区的林木,禁止采伐。但是,因防治林业有害生物、森林防火、维护主要保护对象生存环境、遭受自然灾害等特殊情况必须采伐的和实验区的竹林除外。
The forestry departments of people's governments at or above the provincial level shall formulate corresponding technical protocols on tree harvest, in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph, in accordance with principles such as operation and management by forest classifications, giving priority to protection, and emphasis on efficiency and benefits. 省级以上人民政府林业主管部门应当根据前款规定,按照森林分类经营管理、保护优先、注重效率和效益等原则,制定相应的林木采伐技术规程。
Article 56 For the harvest of the trees on woodlands, an application shall be made for a harvest permit, and the harvest shall be gathered as required by the harvest permit; and for the harvest of bamboo forests outside nature reserves, a harvest permit is not required, but the technical protocols on harvest shall be met.   第五十六条 采伐林地上的林木应当申请采伐许可证,并按照采伐许可证的规定进行采伐;采伐自然保护区以外的竹林,不需要申请采伐许可证,但应当符合林木采伐技术规程。
A rural resident that is to harvest the sporadic trees on the plots of cropland allotted for his or her private use and in the vicinity of his or her building is not required to apply for a harvest permit. 农村居民采伐自留地和房前屋后个人所有的零星林木,不需要申请采伐许可证。
The regeneration harvest of farmland protection forests, wind protection and dune stabilization forests, road protection forests, bank and dike protection forests, and urban trees, among others, on non-woodlands shall be managed by relevant competent authorities in accordance with relevant provisions. 非林地上的农田防护林、防风固沙林、护路林、护岸护堤林和城镇林木等的更新采伐,由有关主管部门按照有关规定管理。
The transplantation of trees shall be managed as the harvest of trees. Specific measures shall be formulated by the forestry department of the State Council. 采挖移植林木按照采伐林木管理。具体办法由国务院林业主管部门制定。
Forging, altering, trading, and leasing a harvest permit shall be prohibited. 禁止伪造、变造、买卖、租借采伐许可证。
Article 57 Harvest permits shall be issued by the forestry departments of people's governments at or above the county level.   第五十七条 采伐许可证由县级以上人民政府林业主管部门核发。
The forestry departments of people's governments at or above the county level shall adopt measures to facilitate applicants in applying for logging permits. 县级以上人民政府林业主管部门应当采取措施,方便申请人办理采伐许可证。
If a rural resident is to harvest the trees on the plots of hilly land allotted for his or her private use and on collective woodlands under a contract awarded to the individual, the forestry department of the people's government at county level or the township people's government entrusted by it shall issue a harvest permit. 农村居民采伐自留山和个人承包集体林地上的林木,由县级人民政府林业主管部门或者其委托的乡镇人民政府核发采伐许可证。
Article 58 For an application for a harvest permit, materials concerning harvest location, forest classification, tree variety, area, accumulation, method, regeneration measures, forest rights, and other content shall be submitted. If the area or accumulation specified by the forestry department of the people's government at or above the provincial level is exceeded, survey and design materials for the harvest zone shall also submitted.   第五十八条 申请采伐许可证,应当提交有关采伐的地点、林种、树种、面积、蓄积、方式、更新措施和林木权属等内容的材料。超过省级以上人民政府林业主管部门规定面积或者蓄积量的,还应当提交伐区调查设计材料。
Article 59 Where the technical protocols on tree harvest are met, the authority in charge of approval and issuing harvest permits shall promptly issue a harvest permit, to the extent of the annual harvest quota.   第五十九条 符合林木采伐技术规程的,审核发放采伐许可证的部门应当及时核发采伐许可证。但是,审核发放采伐许可证的部门不得超过年采伐限额发放采伐许可证。
Article 60 Under any of the following circumstances, no harvest permit may be issued:   第六十条 有下列情形之一的,不得核发采伐许可证:
(1) Harvesting trees during the period and area of closing mountains to cultivate forests. (一)采伐封山育林期、封山育林区内的林木;
(2) Having not completed forest regeneration tasks as required since the harvest in the previous year. (二)上年度采伐后未按照规定完成更新造林任务;
(3) Having not adopted prevention and improvement measures since a major deforestation case, forest fire, or forest pest disaster took place in the previous year. (三)上年度发生重大滥伐案件、森林火灾或者林业有害生物灾害,未采取预防和改进措施;
(4) Circumstances otherwise prohibiting harvest as specified by the laws, regulations, and the forestry department of the State Council. (四)法律法规和国务院林业主管部门规定的禁止采伐的其他情形。
Article 61 Organizations and individuals that harvest trees shall complete forest regeneration in accordance with relevant provisions. The area of forest regeneration shall not be less than the area of harvest, and the forest regeneration shall meet the standards as set forth in the relevant technical protocols.   第六十一条 采伐林木的组织和个人应当按照有关规定完成更新造林。更新造林的面积不得少于采伐的面积,更新造林应当达到相关技术规程规定的标准。
Article 62 The state shall, through interest subsidies, subsidies for stockpiling forest rights as collateral, and other measures, encourage and direct financial institutions to conduct forest-related mortgage loans, fiduciary loans to forest farmers, and other credit business in line with the characteristics of forestry and support forest rights stockpiling institutions in stockpiling forest rights as collateral in a market-oriented manner.   第六十二条 国家通过贴息、林权收储担保补助等措施,鼓励和引导金融机构开展涉林抵押贷款、林农信用贷款等符合林业特点的信贷业务,扶持林权收储机构进行市场化收储担保。
Article 63 The state shall support the development of forest insurance. People's governments at or above the county level shall provide forest insurance premium subsidies according to the law.   第六十三条 国家支持发展森林保险。县级以上人民政府依法对森林保险提供保险费补贴。
Article 64 A forestry operator may voluntarily apply for forest certification to promote the improvement of forest operations and its continuance as a going concern.   第六十四条 林业经营者可以自愿申请森林认证,促进森林经营水平提高和可持续经营。
Article 65 A timber distribution and processing enterprise shall establish a journal of receipt and shipment of raw materials and products. No entity or individual may buy, process, and transport trees in the knowledge that they are from illegal sources such as theft or deforestation.   第六十五条 木材经营加工企业应当建立原料和产品出入库台账。任何单位和个人不得收购、加工、运输明知是盗伐、滥伐等非法来源的林木。
Chapter VII Supervisory Inspection 

第七章 监督检查

Article 66 The forestry departments of people's governments at or above the county level shall, in accordance with the provisions of this Law, conduct supervisory inspection of the protection, restoration, utilization, and regeneration of forest resources and investigate and punish illegal acts such as destruction of forest resources in accordance with the law.   第六十六条 县级以上人民政府林业主管部门依照本法规定,对森林资源的保护、修复、利用、更新等进行监督检查,依法查处破坏森林资源等违法行为。
Article 67 The forestry departments of people's governments at or above the county level shall perform the duty to conduct supervisory inspection of the protection of forest resources and have the power to adopt the following measures:   第六十七条 县级以上人民政府林业主管部门履行森林资源保护监督检查职责,有权采取下列措施:
(1) Conducting on-site inspection of production and operation premises. (一)进入生产经营场所进行现场检查;
(2) Inspecting and copying relevant documents and materials and seizing documents and materials that may be transferred, destroyed, concealed, or tampered with. (二)查阅、复制有关文件、资料,对可能被转移、销毁、隐匿或者篡改的文件、资料予以封存;
(3) Seizing and detaining trees from illegal sources as evidenced and tools, equipment, or property intended for activities that destroy forest resources. (三)查封、扣押有证据证明来源非法的林木以及从事破坏森林资源活动的工具、设备或者财物;
(4) Seizing sites related to activities that destroy forest resources. (四)查封与破坏森林资源活动有关的场所。
For a region where the protection and development of forest resources are ineffective, problems are outstanding, and the public intensively complain, the forestry department of the people's government at or above the provincial level may interview the persons in charge of the people's governments at or above the county level and their relevant departments in the region and require them to adopt measures and take corrective action in a timely manner. The information on the interview and corrective action shall be disclosed to the public. 省级以上人民政府林业主管部门对森林资源保护发展工作不力、问题突出、群众反映强烈的地区,可以约谈所在地区县级以上地方人民政府及其有关部门主要负责人,要求其采取措施及时整改。约谈整改情况应当向社会公开。
Article 68 Where the destruction of forest resources causes ecological and environmental damage, the natural resources department and forestry department of the people's government at or above the county level may sue in a people's court in accordance with the law and require damages from the tortfeasor.   第六十八条 破坏森林资源造成生态环境损害的,县级以上人民政府自然资源主管部门、林业主管部门可以依法向人民法院提起诉讼,对侵权人提出损害赔偿要求。
Article 69 Audit authorities shall conduct audit supervision of state forest resource assets in accordance with the relevant provisions issued by the state.   第六十九条 审计机关按照国家有关规定对国有森林资源资产进行审计监督。
Chapter VIII Legal Liability 

第八章 法律责任

Article 70 Where the forestry department of any people's government at or above the county level or any other relevant state agency fails to perform its duties in accordance with the provisions of this Law, disciplinary action shall be taken against the directly liable person in charge and other directly liable persons according to the law.   第七十条 县级以上人民政府林业主管部门或者其他有关国家机关未依照本法规定履行职责的,对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员依法给予处分。
If a decision on administrative punishment is not made despite that this Law so requires, the higher competent authority shall have the power to order the lower competent authority to make a decision on administrative punishment or directly impose administrative punishment. 依照本法规定应当作出行政处罚决定而未作出的,上级主管部门有权责令下级主管部门作出行政处罚决定或者直接给予行政处罚。
Article 71 Where, in violation of the provisions of this Law, the lawful rights and interests of an owner or user of forests, trees, or woodlands are infringed upon, the violator shall be subject to tort liability in accordance with the law.   第七十一条 违反本法规定,侵害森林、林木、林地的所有者或者使用者的合法权益的,依法承担侵权责任。
Article 72 Where, in violation of the provisions of this Law, a state-owned forestry enterprise or public institution fails to perform its obligation to protect and cultivate forest resources, prepare a forest operation plan, or conduct forest operation activities in accordance with an approved forest operation plan, the forestry department of the people's government at or above the county level shall order corrective action to be taken within a specified period and take disciplinary action against the directly liable person in charge and other directly liable persons according to the law.   第七十二条 违反本法规定,国有林业企业事业单位未履行保护培育森林资源义务、未编制森林经营方案或者未按照批准的森林经营方案开展森林经营活动的,由县级以上人民政府林业主管部门责令限期改正,对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员依法给予处分。
Article 73 Where the use of woodlands is changed, in violation of the provisions of this Law, without the approval of the forestry department of the people's government at or above the county level, the forestry department of the people's government at or above the county level shall order the restoration of vegetation and forestry production conditions within a specified period, and may impose a fine of not more than three times the cost of the restoration.   第七十三条 违反本法规定,未经县级以上人民政府林业主管部门审核同意,擅自改变林地用途的,由县级以上人民政府林业主管部门责令限期恢复植被和林业生产条件,可以处恢复植被和林业生产条件所需费用三倍以下的罚款。
When the forestry department of the people's government at or above the county level has granted approval, if woodlands are occupied without the approval procedures for construction land being initiated, punishment shall be imposed in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Land Administration Law of the People's Republic of China. 虽经县级以上人民政府林业主管部门审核同意,但未办理建设用地审批手续擅自占用林地的,依照《中华人民共和国土地管理法》的有关规定处罚。
If a permanent building is constructed on woodlands in temporary use, or vegetation or forestry production conditions fail to be restored within one year after the expiration of the temporary use of woodlands, punishment shall be imposed in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article. 在临时使用的林地上修建永久性建筑物,或者临时使用林地期满后一年内未恢复植被或者林业生产条件的,依照本条第一款规定处罚。
Article 74 Where reclamation, quarrying, sand quarrying, soil excavation, or other activities are conducted in violation of the provisions of this Law, causing damage to trees, the forestry department of the people's government at or above the county level shall order the illegal act to be ceased and trees of not less than one time nor more than three times the trees damaged to be replanted in the original or another place within a specified period, and may impose a fine of not more than five times the value of the trees damaged; and if damage is caused to woodlands, the forestry department of the people's government at or above the county level shall order to the illegal act to be ceased and vegetation and forestry to be restored within a specified period, and may impose a fine of not more than three times the cost of the restoration.   第七十四条 违反本法规定,进行开垦、采石、采砂、采土或者其他活动,造成林木毁坏的,由县级以上人民政府林业主管部门责令停止违法行为,限期在原地或者异地补种毁坏株数一倍以上三倍以下的树木,可以处毁坏林木价值五倍以下的罚款;造成林地毁坏的,由县级以上人民政府林业主管部门责令停止违法行为,限期恢复植被和林业生产条件,可以处恢复植被和林业生产条件所需费用三倍以下的罚款。
If damage is caused to trees by harvesting firewood, destroying seedlings, or grazing in young woodlands in violation of the provisions of this Law, the forestry department of the people's government at or above the county level shall order the illegal act to be ceased and trees of not less than one time nor more than three times the trees damaged to be replanted in the original or another place within a specified period. 违反本法规定,在幼林地砍柴、毁苗、放牧造成林木毁坏的,由县级以上人民政府林业主管部门责令停止违法行为,限期在原地或者异地补种毁坏株数一倍以上三倍以下的树木。
If sewage and sludge containing heavy metals or other toxic and hazardous substances in excess of standards and dredged sediment, tailings, slag, and the like that may cause pollution to woodlands are discharged into woodlands, punishment shall be imposed in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Soil Pollution Prevention and Control Law of the People's Republic of China. 向林地排放重金属或者其他有毒有害物质含量超标的污水、污泥,以及可能造成林地污染的清淤底泥、尾矿、矿渣等的,依照《中华人民共和国土壤污染防治法》的有关规定处罚。
Article 75 Where a forest protection sign is moved or destroyed in violation of the provisions of this Law, the forestry department of the people's government at or above the county level shall restore the forest protection sign at the expense of the violator.   第七十五条 违反本法规定,擅自移动或者毁坏森林保护标志的,由县级以上人民政府林业主管部门恢复森林保护标志,所需费用由违法者承担。
Article 76 Where trees are stolen, the forestry department of the people's government at or above the county level shall order trees of not less than one time nor more than five times the trees stolen to be replanted in the original or another place within the specified period, in addition to a fine of not less than five times nor more than ten times the value of the trees stolen.   第七十六条 盗伐林木的,由县级以上人民政府林业主管部门责令限期在原地或者异地补种盗伐株数一倍以上五倍以下的树木,并处盗伐林木价值五倍以上十倍以下的罚款。
In the case of deforestation, the forestry department of the people's government at or above the county level shall order trees of not less than one time nor more than three times the trees removed in the deforestation to be replanted in the original or another place within the specified period, and may impose a fine of not less than three times nor more than five times the value of the trees so removed. 滥伐林木的,由县级以上人民政府林业主管部门责令限期在原地或者异地补种滥伐株数一倍以上三倍以下的树木,可以处滥伐林木价值三倍以上五倍以下的罚款。
Article 77 Where a harvest permit is forged, altered, traded, and leased in violation of the provisions of this Law, the forestry department of the people's government at or above the county level shall confiscate the permit and illegal income, in addition to a fine of not less than one time nor more than three times the illegal income; and absent illegal income, a fine of not more than 20,000 yuan may be imposed.   第七十七条 违反本法规定,伪造、变造、买卖、租借采伐许可证的,由县级以上人民政府林业主管部门没收证件和违法所得,并处违法所得一倍以上三倍以下的罚款;没有违法所得的,可以处二万元以下的罚款。
Article 78 Where trees are bought, processed, and transported, in violation of the provisions of this Law, in the knowledge that they are from illegal sources such as theft or deforestation, the forestry department of the people's government at or above the county level shall order the illegal acts to be ceased and confiscate the trees illegally bought, processed, and transported and the proceeds of sale, and may impose a fine of not more than three times the price of the trees illegally bought, processed, and transported.   第七十八条 违反本法规定,收购、加工、运输明知是盗伐、滥伐等非法来源的林木的,由县级以上人民政府林业主管部门责令停止违法行为,没收违法收购、加工、运输的林木或者变卖所得,可以处违法收购、加工、运输林木价款三倍以下的罚款。
Article 79 Where a forest regeneration task fails to be completed in violation of the provisions of this Law, the forestry department of the people's government at or above the county level shall order the task to be completed within a specified period; in the case of failure to do so, a fine of not more than two times the expense necessary for the remainder of the task may be imposed; and disciplinary action shall be taken against the directly liable person in charge and other directly liable persons according to the law.   第七十九条 违反本法规定,未完成更新造林任务的,由县级以上人民政府林业主管部门责令限期完成;逾期未完成的,可以处未完成造林任务所需费用二倍以下的罚款;对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,依法给予处分。
Article 80 Where the implementation of supervisory inspection by the forestry department of any people's government at or above the county level in accordance with the law is denied or obstructed in violation of the provisions of this Law, a fine of not more than 50,000 yuan may be imposed, and if the circumstances are serious, the suspension of production and business for consolidation may be ordered.   第八十条 违反本法规定,拒绝、阻碍县级以上人民政府林业主管部门依法实施监督检查的,可以处五万元以下的罚款,情节严重的,可以责令停产停业整顿。
Article 81 Where the violation of the provisions of this Law has any of the following circumstances, the forestry department of the people's government at or above the county level shall organize performance on behalf of the violator in accordance with the law at the expense of the violator:   第八十一条 违反本法规定,有下列情形之一的,由县级以上人民政府林业主管部门依法组织代为履行,代为履行所需费用由违法者承担:
(1) The restoration of vegetation and forestry production conditions is denied, or the restoration of vegetation and forestry production conditions lacks conformity with the relevant provisions issued by the state. (一)拒不恢复植被和林业生产条件,或者恢复植被和林业生产条件不符合国家有关规定;
(2) Replanting trees is denied, or the replanting lacks conformity with the relevant provisions issued by the state. (二)拒不补种树木,或者补种不符合国家有关规定。
The standards for restoring vegetation and forestry production conditions and replanting trees shall be formulated by the forestry departments of people's governments at or above the provincial level. 恢复植被和林业生产条件、树木补种的标准,由省级以上人民政府林业主管部门制定。
Article 82 Public security authorities may, in accordance with the relevant provisions issued by the state, exercise the power of administrative punishment prescribed in paragraph 1 of Article 74 and Articles 76, 77, and 78 of this Law.   第八十二条 公安机关按照国家有关规定,可以依法行使本法第七十四条第一款、第七十六条、第七十七条、第七十八条规定的行政处罚权。
If the violation of the provisions of this Law constitutes a violation of public security management, public security management punishment shall be imposed in accordance with the law; and if a crime is constituted, the offender shall be held criminally liable in accordance with the law. 违反本法规定,构成违反治安管理行为的,依法给予治安管理处罚;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。
Chapter IX Supplemental Provisions 

第九章 附则

Article 83 In this Law, the following terms shall have the following meaning:   第八十三条 本法下列用语的含义是:
(1) Forests include woody plant forests, bamboo forests, and shrub forests specified by the state. Forests may be classified according to their use as protection forests, special-purpose forests, timber forests, economic forests, and energy forests. (一)森林,包括乔木林、竹林和国家特别规定的灌木林。按照用途可以分为防护林、特种用途林、用材林、经济林和能源林。
(2) Trees include trees and bamboo. (二)林木,包括树木和竹子。
(3) “Woodlands” means the land for the development of forestry as designated by the plans of the people's government at or above the county level, including woody plant woodlands with a forest canopy density of not less than 0.2, bamboo woodlands, shrub woodlands, sparse woodlands, stump lands, burned areas, non-mature forestation lands, and nursery land. (三)林地,是指县级以上人民政府规划确定的用于发展林业的土地。包括郁闭度0.2以上的乔木林地以及竹林地、灌木林地、疏林地、采伐迹地、火烧迹地、未成林造林地、苗圃地等。
Article 84 This Law shall enter into force on July 1, 2020.   第八十四条 本法自2020年7月1日起施行。
     
     
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