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Contract Law of the People's Republic of China [Effective]
中华人民共和国合同法 [现行有效]
【法宝引证码】
  • Document Number: Order [1999] No.15 of the President of the People's Republic of China
  • Date issued: 03-15-1999
  • Effective date: 10-01-1999
  • Level of Authority: Laws
  • Area of Law:Contract,E-Commerce

 

Contract Law of the People's Republic of ChinaOrder
[1999] No.15 of the President of the People's Republic of China
Contract Law of the People's Republic of China has been adopted at the Second Session of the Ninth National People's Congress on March 15, 1999, and is hereby promulgated, it will come into force as of October 1, 1999.
President of the People's Republic of China: Jiang Zemin
March 15, 1999
Contract Law of the People's Republic of China


 

中华人民共和国主席令
(第十五号)


《中华人民共和国合同法》已由中华人民共和国第九届全国人民代表大会第二次会议于1999年3月15日通过,现予公布,自1999年10月1日起施行。
中华人民共和国主席 江泽民
1999年3月15日
中华人民共和国合同法
(1999年3月15日第九届全国人民代表大会第二次会议通过)
总则


 第一章 一般规定

 第二章 合同的订立

 第三章 合同的效力

 第四章 合同的履行

 第五章 合同的变更和转让

 第六章 合同的权利义务终止

 第七章 违约责任


 第八章 其他规定
分则

 第九章 买卖合同

 第十章 供用电、水、气、热力合同

 第十一章 赠与合同

 第十二章 借款合同

 第十三章 租赁合同

 第十四章 融资租赁合同

 第十五章 承揽合同

 第十六章 建设工程合同

 第十七章 运输合同

 第十八章 技术合同

 第十九章 保管合同

 第二十章 仓储合同

 第二十一章 委托合同

 第二十二章 行纪合同


 第二十三章 居间合同
附则
General Provisions
 

总则


Chapter 1 General Rules
 

第一章 一般规定

Article 1 This Law is enacted in order to protect the lawful rights and interests of the contracting parties, to maintain social and economic order, and to promote the process of socialist modernization.
   第一条 【立法目的】为了保护合同当事人的合法权益,维护社会经济秩序,促进社会主义现代化建设,制定本法。
Article 2 A contract in this Law refers to an agreement among natural persons, legal persons or other organizations as equal parties for the establishment, modification, termination of a relationship involving the civil rights and obligations of such entities. Agreements concerning personal relationships such as marriage,adoption, guardianship, etc.shall be governed by the provisions in other laws.
   第二条 【合同定义】本法所称合同是平等主体的自然人、法人、其他组织之间设立、变更、终止民事权利义务关系的协议。婚姻、收养、监护等有关身份关系的协议,适用其他法律的规定。
Article 3 Contracting parties shall have equal legal status, and no party may impose its will on the other party.
   第三条 【平等原则】合同当事人的法律地位平等,一方不得将自己的意志强加给另一方。
Article 4 The parties have the right to lawfully enter into a contract of their own free will in accordance with the law, and no unit or individual may illegally interfere therewith.
   第四条 【合同自由原则】当事人依法享有自愿订立合同的权利,任何单位和个人不得非法干预。
Article 5 The parties shall adhere to the principle of fairness in deciding their respective rights and obligations.
   第五条 【公平原则】当事人应当遵循公平原则确定各方的权利和义务。
Article 6 The parties shall observe the principle of honesty and good faith in exercising their rights and performing their obligations.
   第六条 【诚实信用原则】当事人行使权利、履行义务应当遵循诚实信用原则。
Article 7 In concluding and performing a contract, the parties shall comply with the laws and administrative regulations, respect social ethics, and shall not disrupt the social and economic order or impair the public interests.
   第七条 【遵纪守法原则】当事人订立、履行合同,应当遵守法律、行政法规,尊重社会公德,不得扰乱社会经济秩序,损害社会公共利益。
Article 8 A lawfully established contract shall be legally binding on the parties thereto, each of whom shall perform its own obligations in accordance with the terms of the contract, and no party shall unilaterally modify or terminate the contract.The contract established according to law is protected by law.
   第八条 【依合同履行义务原则】依法成立的合同,对当事人具有法律约束力。当事人应当按照约定履行自己的义务,不得擅自变更或者解除合同。
依法成立的合同,受法律保护。
Chapter 2 Conclusion of Contracts
 

第二章 合同的订立

Article 9 In entering into a contract, the parties shall have appropriate capacities for civil rights and civil acts.A party may appoint an agent to enter into a contract on its behalf in accordance with the law.
   第九条 【订立合同的能力】当事人订立合同,应当具有相应的民事权利能力和民事行为能力。当事人依法可以委托代理人订立合同。
Article 10 The parties may use written, oral or other forms in entering into a contract.
A contract shall be in written form if the laws or administrative regulations so provide. A contract shall be concluded in written form if the parties so agree.
   第十条 【合同的形式】当事人订立合同,有书面形式、口头形式和其他形式。
法律、行政法规规定采用书面形式的,应当采用书面形式。当事人约定采用书面形式的,应当采用书面形式。
Article 11 "Written form" refers to a form such as a written contractual agreement, letter, electronic data text(including a telegram, telex, fax, electronic data exchange and e-mail)that can tangibly express the contents contained therein.
   第十一条 【书面形式】书面形式是指合同书、信件和数据电文(包括电报、电传、传真、电子数据交换和电子邮件)等可以有形地表现所载内容的形式。
Article 12 The contents of a contract shall be agreed upon by the parties, and shall generally contain the following clauses:
   第十二条 【合同内容】合同的内容由当事人约定,一般包括以下条款:
(1) titles or names and domiciles of the parties;
 (一)当事人的名称或者姓名和住所;
(2) subject matter;
 (二)标的;
(3) quantity;
 (三)数量;
(4) quality;
 (四)质量;
(5) price or remuneration;
 (五)价款或者报酬;
(6) time limit, place and method of performance;
 (六)履行期限、地点和方式;
(7) liability for breach of contract; and
 (七)违约责任;
(8) method to settle disputes.The parties may conclude a contract by reference to a model text of each kind of contract.

 (八)解决争议的方法。
当事人可以参照各类合同的示范文本订立合同。
Article 13 The parties shall conclude a contract in the form of an offer and an acceptance.
   第十三条 【订立合同方式】当事人订立合同,采取要约、承诺方式。
Article 14 An offer is an expression of an intent to enter into a contract with another person. Such expression of intent shall comply with the following:
   第十四条 【要约】要约是希望和他人订立合同的意思表示,该意思表示应当符合下列规定:
(1) its contents shall be specific and definite;
 (一)内容具体确定;
(2) it indicates that the offeror will be bound by the expression of intent in case of acceptance by the offeree.
 (二)表明经受要约人承诺,要约人即受该意思表示约束。
Article 15 An invitation for offer is an expression of an intent to invite other parties to make offers thereto. Mailed price lists, public notices of auction and tender, prospectuses and commercial advertisements, etc. are invitations for offer.Where the contents of a commercial advertisement meet the requirements for an offer, it shall be regarded as an offer.
   第十五条 【要约邀请】要约邀请是希望他人向自己发出要约的意思表示。寄送的价目表、拍卖公告、招标公告、招股说明书、商业广告等为要约邀请。商业广告的内容符合要约规定的,视为要约。
Article 16 An offer becomes effective when it reaches the offeree.
If a contract is concluded through data-telex, and a recipient designates a specific system to receive the date-telex, the time when the data-telex enters such specific system shall be the time of arrival; if no specific system is appointed, the time when the data-telex first enters any of the recipient's systems shall be regarded as the time of arrival.
   第十六条 【要约的生效】要约到达受要约人时生效。
采用数据电文形式订立合同,收件人指定特定系统接收数据电文的,该数据电文进入该特定系统的时间,视为到达时间;未指定特定系统的,该数据电文进入收件人的任何系统的首次时间,视为到达时间。
Article 17 An offer may be withdrawn. The withdrawal notice shall reach the offeree before or at the same time when the offer arrives.
   第十七条 【要约的撤回】要约可以撤回。撤回要约的通知应当在要约到达受要约人之前或者与要约同时到达受要约人。
Article 18 An offer may be revoked. The revocation notice shall reach the offeree before it has dispatched a notice of acceptance.
   第十八条 【要约的撤销】要约可以撤销。撤销要约的通知应当在受要约人发出承诺通知之前到达受要约人。
Article 19 An offer may not be revoked, if
   第十九条 【要约不得撤销的情形】有下列情形之一的,要约不得撤销:
(1) the offeror indicates a fixed time for acceptance or otherwise explicitly states that the offer is irrevocable; or
 (一)要约人确定了承诺期限或者以其他形式明示要约不可撤销;
(2) the offeree has reasons to rely on the offer as being irrevocable and has made preparation for performing the contact.
 (二)受要约人有理由认为要约是不可撤销的,并已经为履行合同作了准备工作。
Article 20 An offer shall lose efficacy under any of the following circumstances:
   第二十条 【要约的失效】有下列情形之一的,要约失效:
(1) the notice of rejection reaches the offeror;
 (一)拒绝要约的通知到达要约人;
(2) the offeror revokes the offer in accordance with the law;
 (二)要约人依法撤销要约;
(3) the offeree fails to dispatch an acceptance before the expiration of the time limit for acceptance;
 (三)承诺期限届满,受要约人未作出承诺;
(4) the offeree makes substantial changes to the contents of the offer.
 (四)受要约人对要约的内容作出实质性变更。
Article 21 An acceptance is the expression of an intention to by the offeree to assent to the offer.
   第二十一条 【承诺的定义】承诺是受要约人同意要约的意思表示。
Article 22 The acceptance shall be made in the form of a notice, except where acceptance may be made by an act on the basis of customary business practice or as expressed in the offer.
   第二十二条 【承诺的方式】承诺应当以通知的方式作出,但根据交易习惯或者要约表明可以通过行为作出承诺的除外。
Article 23 An acceptance shall reach the offeror within the time limit prescribed in the offer.
Where no time limit is prescribed in the offer, the acceptance shall reach the offeror in accordance with the following provisions:
   第二十三条 【承诺的期限】承诺应当在要约确定的期限内到达要约人。
要约没有确定承诺期限的,承诺应当依照下列规定到达:
(1) if the offer is made in dialogues, the acceptance shall be made immediately unless otherwise agreed upon by the parties;
 (一)要约以对话方式作出的,应当即时作出承诺,但当事人另有约定的除外;
(2) If the offer is made in forms other than a dialogue, the acceptance shall reach the offeror within a reasonable period of time.
 (二)要约以非对话方式作出的,承诺应当在合理期限内到达。
Article 24 Where an offer is made by letter or telegram, the time limit for acceptance shall accrue from the date shown in the letter or from the date on which the telegram is handed in for dispatch. If no such date is shown in the letter, it shall accrue from the postmark date on the envelope.Where an offer is made by means of instantaneous communication, such as telephone or facsimile,etc. the time limit for acceptance shall accrue from the moment that the offer reaches the offeree.
   第二十四条 【承诺期限的起点】要约以信件或者电报作出的,承诺期限自信件载明的日期或者电报交发之日开始计算。信件未载明日期的,自投寄该信件的邮戳日期开始计算。要约以电话、传真等快速通讯方式作出的,承诺期限自要约到达受要约人时开始计算。
Article 25 A contract is established when the acceptance becomes effective.
   第二十五条 【合同成立时间】承诺生效时合同成立。
Article 26 An acceptance becomes effective when its notice reaches the offeror. If notice of acceptance is not required, the acceptance shall become effective when an act of acceptance is performed in accordance with transaction practices or as required in the offer.
Where a contract is concluded in the form of date-telex, the time of arrival of an acceptance shall be governed by the provisions of Paragraph 2, Article 16 of this Law.
   第二十六条 【承诺的生效】承诺通知到达要约人时生效。承诺不需要通知的,根据交易习惯或者要约的要求作出承诺的行为时生效。
采用数据电文形式订立合同的,承诺到达的时间适用本法第十六条第二款的规定。
Article 27 An acceptance may be withdrawn, but a notice of withdrawal shall reach the offeror before or at the same time when the notice of acceptance reaches the offeror.
   第二十七条 【承诺的撤回】承诺可以撤回。撤回承诺的通知应当在承诺通知到达要约人之前或者与承诺通知同时到达要约人。
Article 28 Where an offeree makes an acceptance beyond the time limit for acceptance, the acceptance shall be a new offer except that the offeror promptly informs the offeree of the effectiveness of the said acceptance.
   第二十八条 【新要约】受要约人超过承诺期限发出承诺的,除要约人及时通知受要约人该承诺有效的以外,为新要约。
Article 29 If the offeree dispatched the acceptance within the time limit specified for acceptance, and under normal circumstances the acceptance would have reached the offeror in due time, but due to other reasons the acceptance reaches the offeror after the time limit for acceptance has expired,such acceptance shall be effective, unless the offeror notifies the offeree in a timely manner that it does not accept the acceptance due to the failure of the acceptance to arrive within the time limit.
   第二十九条 【迟到的承诺】受要约人在承诺期限内发出承诺,按照通常情形能够及时到达要约人,但因其他原因承诺到达要约人时超过承诺期限的,除要约人及时通知受要约人因承诺超过期限不接受该承诺的以外,该承诺有效。
Article 30 The contents of an acceptance shall comply with those of the offer. If the offeree substantially modifies the contents of the offer, it shall constitute a new offer. The modification relating to the subject matter, quality, quantity, price or remuneration, time or place or method of performance, liabilities for breach of contract and method of dispute resolution, etc. shall constitute the substantial modification of an offer.
   第三十条 【承诺的变更】承诺的内容应当与要约的内容一致。受要约人对要约的内容作出实质性变更的,为新要约。有关合同标的、数量、质量、价款或者报酬、履行期限、履行地点和方式、违约责任和解决争议方法等的变更,是对要约内容的实质性变更。
Article 31 If the acceptance does not substantially modifies the contents of the offer, it shall be effective, and the contents of the contract shall be subject to those of the acceptance, except as rejected promptly by the offeror or indicated in the offer that an acceptance may not modify the offer at all.
   第三十一条 【承诺的内容】承诺对要约的内容作出非实质性变更的,除要约人及时表示反对或者要约表明承诺不得对要约的内容作出任何变更的以外,该承诺有效,合同的内容以承诺的内容为准。
Article 32 Where the parties conclude a contract in written form, the contract is established when it is signed or sealed by the parties.
   第三十二条 【合同成立时间】当事人采用合同书形式订立合同的,自双方当事人签字或者盖章时合同成立。
Article 33 Where the parties conclude the contract in the form of letters or data-telex, etc., one party may request to sign a letter of confirmation before the conclusion of the contract. The contract shall be established at the time when the letter of confirmation is signed.
   第三十三条 【确认书与合同成立】当事人采用信件、数据电文等形式订立合同的,可以在合同成立之前要求签订确认书。签订确认书时合同成立。
Article 34 The place of effectiveness of an acceptance shall be the place of the establishment of the contract.
If the contract is concluded in the form of data-telex, the main business place of the recipient shall be the place of establishment. If the recipient does not have a main business place, its habitual residence shall be considered to be the place of establishment. Where the parties agree otherwise, such agreement shall apply.
   第三十四条 【合同成立地点】承诺生效的地点为合同成立的地点。
采用数据电文形式订立合同的,收件人的主营业地为合同成立的地点;没有主营业地的,其经常居住地为合同成立的地点。当事人另有约定的,按照其约定。
Article 35 Where the parties conclude a contract in written form, the place where both parties sign or affix their seals on the contract shall be the place of establishment.
   第三十五条 【书面合同成立地点】当事人采用合同书形式订立合同的,双方当事人签字或者盖章的地点为合同成立的地点。
Article 36 Where a contract is to be concluded in written form as required by relevant laws and administrative regulations or as agreed by the parties, and the parties failed to conclude the contract in written form, but one party has performed the principal obligation and the other party has accepted it, the contract is established.
   第三十六条 【书面合同与合同成立】法律、行政法规规定或者当事人约定采用书面形式订立合同,当事人未采用书面形式但一方已经履行主要义务,对方接受的,该合同成立。
Article 37 Where a contract is to be concluded in written form, if one party has performed its principal obligation and the other party has accepted it before signing or sealing of the contract, the contract is established.
   第三十七条 【合同书与合同成立】采用合同书形式订立合同,在签字或者盖章之前,当事人一方已经履行主要义务,对方接受的,该合同成立。
Article 38 Where the State has issued a mandatory plan or a State purchasing order based on necessity,the relevant legal persons and the other organizations shall conclude a contract between them in accordance with the rights and obligations as stipulated by the relevant laws and administrative regulations.
   第三十八条 【依国家计划订立合同】国家根据需要下达指令性任务或者国家订货任务的,有关法人、其他组织之间应当依照有关法律、行政法规规定的权利和义务订立合同。
Article 39 Where standard terms are adopted in concluding a contract, the party supplying the standard terms shall define the rights and obligations between the parties abiding by the principle of fairness, and shall inform the other party to note the exclusion or restriction of its liabilities in a reasonable way, and shall explain the standard terms upon request by the otherparty.
Standard terms are clauses that are prepared in advance for general and repeated use by one party, and which are not negotiated with the other party when the contract is concluded.
   第三十九条 【格式合同条款定义及使用人义务】采用格式条款订立合同的,提供格式条款的一方应当遵循公平原则确定当事人之间的权利和义务,并采取合理的方式提请对方注意免除或者限制其责任的条款,按照对方的要求,对该条款予以说明。
格式条款是当事人为了重复使用而预先拟定,并在订立合同时未与对方协商的条款。
Article 40 When standard terms are under the circumstances stipulated in Articles 52 and 53 of this Law,or the party which supplies the standard terms exempts itself from its liabilities, increases the liabilities of the other party, and deprives the material rights of the other party, the terms shall be invalid.
   第四十条 【格式合同条款的无效】格式条款具有本法第五十二条和第五十三条规定情形的,或者提供格式条款一方免除其责任、加重对方责任、排除对方主要权利的,该条款无效。
Article 41 If a dispute over the understanding of the standard terms occurs, it shall be interpreted in accordance with common understanding. Where there are two or more kinds of interpretation, an interpretation unfavorable to the party supplying the standard terms shall prevail. Where the standard terms are inconsistent with non-standard terms, the latter shall prevail.
   第四十一条 【格式合同的解释】对格式条款的理解发生争议的,应当按照通常理解予以解释。对格式条款有两种以上解释的,应当作出不利于提供格式条款一方的解释。格式条款和非格式条款不一致的,应当采用非格式条款。
Article 42 The party shall be liable for damage if it is under one of the following circumstances in concluding a contract and thus causing losses to the other party:
   第四十二条 【缔约过失】当事人在订立合同过程中有下列情形之一,给对方造成损失的,应当承担损害赔偿责任:
(1) pretending to conclude a contract, and negotiating in bad faith;
 (一)假借订立合同,恶意进行磋商;
(2) deliberately concealing important facts relating to the conclusion of the contract or providing false information;
 (二)故意隐瞒与订立合同有关的重要事实或者提供虚假情况;
(3) performing other acts which violate the principle of good faith.
 (三)有其他违背诚实信用原则的行为。
Article 43 A trade secret the parties learn in concluding a contract shall not be disclosed or improperly used, no matter the contract is established or not. If the party discloses or improperly uses such trade secret and thus causing loss to the other party, it shall be liable for damages.
   第四十三条 【保密义务】当事人在订立合同过程中知悉的商业秘密,无论合同是否成立,不得泄露或者不正当地使用。泄露或者不正当地使用该商业秘密给对方造成损失的,应当承担损害赔偿责任。
Chapter 3 Validity of Contracts
 

第三章 合同的效力

Article 44 The contract established according to law becomes effective upon its establishment.
With regard to contracts that are subject to approval or registration as stipulated by relevant laws or administrative regulations, the provisions thereof shall be followed.
   第四十四条 【合同的生效】依法成立的合同,自成立时生效。
法律、行政法规规定应当办理批准、登记等手续生效的,依照其规定。
Article 45 The parties may agree on that the effectiveness of a contract be subject to certain conditions. A contract whose effectiveness is subject to certain conditions shall become effective when such conditions are accomplished. The contract with dissolving conditions shall become invalid when such conditions are satisfied.
If a party improperly prevent the satisfaction of a condition for its own interests, the condition shall be regarded as having been accomplished. If a party improperly facilitates the satisfaction of a condition, such condition shall be regarded as not to have been satisfied.
   第四十五条 【附条件的合同】当事人对合同的效力可以约定附条件。附生效条件的合同,自条件成就时生效。附解除条件的合同,自条件成就时失效。
当事人为自己的利益不正当地阻止条件成就的,视为条件已成就;不正当地促成条件成就的,视为条件不成就。
Article 46 The parties may agree on a conditional time period as to the effectiveness of the contract. A contract subject to an effective time period shall come into force when the period expires. A contract with termination time period shall become invalid when the period expires.
   第四十六条 【附期限的合同】当事人对合同的效力可以约定附期限。附生效期限的合同,自期限届至时生效。附终止期限的合同,自期限届满时失效。
Article 47 A contract concluded by a person with limited civil capacity of conduct shall be effective after being ratified afterwards by the person's statutory agent, but a pure profit-making contract or a contract concluded which is appropriate to the person's age, intelligence or mental health conditions need not be ratified by the person's statutory agent.
The counterpart may urge the statutory agent to ratify the contract within one month. It shall be regarded as a refusal of ratification that the statutory agent does not make any expression. A bona fide counterpart has the right to withdraw it before the contract is ratified.The withdrawal shall be made by means of notice.
   第四十七条 【限制行为能力人订立的合同】限制民事行为能力人订立的合同,经法定代理人追认后,该合同有效,但纯获利益的合同或者与其年龄、智力、精神健康状况相适应而订立的合同,不必经法定代理人追认。
相对人可以催告法定代理人在一个月内予以追认。法定代理人未作表示的,视为拒绝追认。合同被追认之前,善意相对人有撤销的权利。撤销应当以通知的方式作出。
Article 48 A contract concluded by an actor who as no power of agency, who oversteps the power of agency, or whose power of agency has expired and yet concludes it on behalf of the principal,shall have no legally binding force on the principal without ratification by the principal, and the actor shall be held liable.
The counterpart may urge the principal to ratify it within one month. It shall be regarded as a refusal of ratification that the principal does not make any expression. A bona fide counterpart has the right to withdraw it before the contract is ratified. The withdrawal shall be made by means of notice.
   第四十八条 【无权代理人订立的合同】行为人没有代理权、超越代理权或者代理权终止后以被代理人名义订立的合同,未经被代理人追认,对被代理人不发生效力,由行为人承担责任。
相对人可以催告被代理人在一个月内予以追认。被代理人未作表示的,视为拒绝追认。合同被追认之前,善意相对人有撤销的权利。撤销应当以通知的方式作出。
Article 49 If an actor has no power of agency, oversteps the power of agency, or the power of agency has expired and yet concludes a contract in the principal's name, and the counterpart has reasons to trust that the actor has the power of agency, the act of agency shall be effective.
   第四十九条 【表见代理】行为人没有代理权、超越代理权或者代理权终止后以被代理人名义订立合同,相对人有理由相信行为人有代理权的,该代理行为有效。
Article 50 Where a statutory representative or a responsible person of a legal person or other organization oversteps his/her power and concludes a contract, the representative act shall be effective except that the counterpart knows or ought to know that he/she is overstepping his/her powers.
   第五十条 【法定代表人越权行为】法人或者其他组织的法定代表人、负责人超越权限订立的合同,除相对人知道或者应当知道其超越权限的以外,该代表行为有效。
Article 51 Where a person having no right to disposal of property disposes of other persons' properties,and the principal ratifies the act afterwards or the person without power of disposal has obtained the power after concluding a contract, the contract shall be valid.
   第五十一条 【无处分权人订立的合同】无处分权的人处分他人财产,经权利人追认或者无处分权的人订立合同后取得处分权的,该合同有效。
Article 52 A contract shall be null and void under any of the following circumstances:
   第五十二条 【合同无效的法定情形】有下列情形之一的,合同无效:
(1) a contract is concluded through the use of fraud or coercion by one party to damage the interests of the State;
 (一)一方以欺诈、胁迫的手段订立合同,损害国家利益;
(2) malicious collusion is conducted to damage the interests of the State, a collective or a third party;
 (二)恶意串通,损害国家、集体或者第三人利益;
(3) an illegitimate purpose is concealed under the guise of legitimate acts;
 (三)以合法形式掩盖非法目的;
(4) damaging the public interests;
 (四)损害社会公共利益;
(5) violating the compulsory provisions of laws and administrative regulations.
 (五)违反法律、行政法规的强制性规定。
Article 53 The following exception clauses in a contract shall be null and void:
   第五十三条 【合同免责条款的无效】合同中的下列免责条款无效:
(1) those that cause personal injury to the other party;
 (一)造成对方人身伤害的;
(2) those that cause property damages to the other party as result of deliberate intent or gross negligence.
 (二)因故意或者重大过失造成对方财产损失的。
Article 54 A party shall have the right to request the people's court or an arbitration institution to modify or revoke the following contracts:
   第五十四条 【可撤销合同】下列合同,当事人一方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构变更或者撤销:
(1) those concluded as a result of significant misconception;
 (一)因重大误解订立的;
(2) those that are obviously unfair at the time when concluding the contract.
If a contract is concluded by one party against the other party's true intentions through the use of fraud, coercion, or exploitation of the other party's unfavorable position, the injured party shall have the right to request the people's court or an arbitration institution to modify or revoke it.
Where a party requests for modification, the people's court or the arbitration institution may not revoke the contract.
 (二)在订立合同时显失公平的。
一方以欺诈、胁迫的手段或者乘人之危,使对方在违背真实意思的情况下订立的合同,受损害方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构变更或者撤销。
当事人请求变更的,人民法院或者仲裁机构不得撤销。
Article 55 The right to revoke a contract shall extinguish under any of the following circumstances:
   第五十五条 【撤销权的消灭】有下列情形之一的,撤销权消灭:
(1) a party having the right to revoke the contract fails to exercise the right within one year from the day that it knows or ought to know the revoking causes;
 (一)具有撤销权的当事人自知道或者应当知道撤销事由之日起一年内没有行使撤销权;
(2) a party having the right to revoke the contract explicitly expresses or conducts an act to waive the right after it knows the revoking causes.
 (二)具有撤销权的当事人知道撤销事由后明确表示或者以自己的行为放弃撤销权。
Article 56 A contract that is null and void or revoked shall have no legally binding force ever from the very beginning. If part of a contract is null and void without affecting the validity of the other parts, the other parts shall still be valid.
   第五十六条 【合同自始无效与部分有效】无效的合同或者被撤销的合同自始没有法律约束力。合同部分无效,不影响其他部分效力的,其他部分仍然有效。
Article 57 If a contract is null and void, revoked or terminated, it shall not affect the validity of the dispute settlement clause which is independently existing in the contract.
   第五十七条 【合同解决争议条款的效力】合同无效、被撤销或者终止的,不影响合同中独立存在的有关解决争议方法的条款的效力。
Article 58 The property acquired as a result of a contract shall be returned after the contract is confirmed to be null and void or has been revoked; where the property can not be returned or the return is unnecessary, it shall be reimbursed at its estimated price. The party at fault shall compensate the other party for losses incurred as a result therefrom. If both parties are fault,each party shall respectively be liable.
   第五十八条 【合同无效或被撤销的法律后果】合同无效或者被撤销后,因该合同取得的财产,应当予以返还;不能返还或者没有必要返还的,应当折价补偿。有过错的一方应当赔偿对方因此所受到的损失,双方都有过错的,应当各自承担相应的责任。
Article 59 If the parties have maliciously conducted collusion to damage the interests of the State, a collective or a third party, the property thus acquired shall be turned over to the State or returned to the collective or the third party.
   第五十九条 【恶意串通获取财产的返还】当事人恶意串通,损害国家、集体或者第三人利益的,因此取得的财产收归国家所有或者返还集体、第三人。
Chapter 4 Performance of Contracts
 

第四章 合同的履行

Article 60 Each party shall fully perform its own obligations as agreed upon.
The parties shall abide by the principle of good faith, and perform obligations of notification, assistance, and confidentiality, etc. in accordance with the nature and purpose of the contract and the transaction practice.
   第六十条 【严格履行与诚实信用】当事人应当按照约定全面履行自己的义务。
当事人应当遵循诚实信用原则,根据合同的性质、目的和交易习惯履行通知、协助、保密等义务。
Article 61 Where, after the contract becomes effective, there is no agreement in the contract between the parties on such contents as quality, price or remuneration, or place of performance etc., or such agreement is ambiguous, the parties may agree upon supplementary terms through consultation;if a supplementary agreement cannot be reached, such terms shall be determined in accordance with the relevant provisions of the contract or the transaction practices.
   第六十一条 【合同约定不明的补救】合同生效后,当事人就质量、价款或者报酬、履行地点等内容没有约定或者约定不明确的,可以协议补充;不能达成补充协议的,按照合同有关条款或者交易习惯确定。
Article 62 Where certain contents agreed upon by the parties in the contract are ambiguous and cannot be determined in accordance with the provisions in Article 61 of this Law, the following provisions shall be applied:
   第六十二条 【合同约定不明时的履行】当事人就有关合同内容约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,适用下列规定:
(1) if quality requirement is not clear, performance shall be in accordance with the state standard or industry standard; absent any state or industry standard, performance shall be in accordance with the customary standard or any particular standard consistent with the purpose of the contract;
 (一)质量要求不明确的,按照国家标准、行业标准履行;没有国家标准、行业标准的,按照通常标准或者符合合同目的的特定标准履行。
(2) if price or remuneration is not clear, performance shall be in accordance with the prevailing market price at the place of performance at the time the contract was concluded, and if adoption of a price commissioned by the government or based on government issued pricing guidelines is required by law, such requirement applies;
 (二)价款或者报酬不明确的,按照订立合同时履行地的市场价格履行;依法应当执行政府定价或者政府指导价的,按照规定履行。
(3) where the place of performance is not clear, if the obligation is payment of money,performance shall be at the place where the payee is located; if the obligation is delivery of immovable property, performance shall be at the place where the immovable property is located;for any other subject matter, performance shall be effected at the place of location of the party fulfilling the obligations.
 (三)履行地点不明确,给付货币的,在接受货币一方所在地履行;交付不动产的,在不动产所在地履行;其他标的,在履行义务一方所在地履行。
(4) if the time of performance is not clear, the obligor may perform, and the obligee may require performance, at any time, provided that the other party shall be given the time required for preparation;
 (四)履行期限不明确的,债务人可以随时履行,债权人也可以随时要求履行,但应当给对方必要的准备时间。
(5) if the method of performance is not clear, performance shall be rendered in a manner which is conducive to realizing the purpose of the contract;
 (五)履行方式不明确的,按照有利于实现合同目的的方式履行。
(6) if the responsibility for the expenses of performance is not clear, the party fulfilling the obligations shall bear the expenses.
 (六)履行费用的负担不明确的,由履行义务一方负担。
Article 63 Where the government-fixed price or government-directed price is followed in a contract, if the said price is readjusted within the time limit for delivery as stipulated in the contract,the payment shall be calculated according to the price at the time of delivery. Where a party delays in delivering the subject matter, the original price shall be adopted if the price rises;and the new price shall be adopted if the price falls. Where a party delays in taking delivery of the subject matter or making payment, the new price shall be adopted if the price rises, and the original price shall be adopted if the price falls.
   第六十三条 【交付期限与价格执行】执行政府定价或者政府指导价的,在合同约定的交付期限内政府价格调整时,按照交付时的价格计价。逾期交付标的物的,遇价格上涨时,按照原价格执行;价格下降时,按照新价格执行。逾期提取标的物或者逾期付款的,遇价格上涨时,按照新价格执行;价格下降时,按照原价格执行。
Article 64 Where the parties agree that the obligor shall perform the obligations to a third party, and the obligor fails to perform its obligations to such third party or its performance of the obligations is not in conformity with the agreement, the obligor shall be liable to the obligee for breach of contract.
   第六十四条 【向第三人履行合同】当事人约定由债务人向第三人履行债务的,债务人未向第三人履行债务或者履行债务不符合约定,应当向债权人承担违约责任。
Article 65 Where the parties agree that a third party performs the obligations to the obligee, and the third party fails to perform the obligations or the performance is not in conformity with the agreement, the obligor shall be liable to the obligee for breach of contract.
   第六十五条 【第三人不履行合同的责任承担】当事人约定由第三人向债权人履行债务,第三人不履行债务或者履行债务不符合约定,债务人应当向债权人承担违约责任。
Article 66 Where both parties have obligations toward one another and there is no order of priority in respect of the performance of obligations, the parties shall perform the obligations simultaneously. Each party has the right to reject any demand by the other party for performance prior to the performance by the other party. If the performance of the obligations of the party who is to perform first is not in conformity with the agreement, the party who is perform later has the right to reject the other party's demand for corresponding performance.
   第六十六条 【同时履行抗辩权】当事人互负债务,没有先后履行顺序的,应当同时履行。一方在对方履行之前有权拒绝其履行要求。一方在对方履行债务不符合约定时,有权拒绝其相应的履行要求。
Article 67 Where both parties have obligations toward each other and there is an order of priority in respect of the performance, and the party who is to perform first fails to perform, the party who is to perform later has the right to reject the other party's demand for performance. If the performance of the obligations of the party who is to perform first is not in conformity with theagreement, the party who is to perform later has the right to reject the other party's demand for corresponding performance.
   第六十七条 【先履行义务】当事人互负债务,有先后履行顺序,先履行一方未履行的,后履行一方有权拒绝其履行要求。先履行一方履行债务不符合约定的,后履行一方有权拒绝其相应的履行要求。
Article 68 The party required to perform first may suspend its performance if it has conclusive evidence showing that the other party is under any of the following circumstances:
   第六十八条 【不安抗辩权】应当先履行债务的当事人,有确切证据证明对方有下列情形之一的,可以中止履行:
(1) its business has seriously deteriorated;
 (一)经营状况严重恶化;
(2) it has engaged in transfer of assets or withdrawal of funds for the purpose of evading debts;
 (二)转移财产、抽逃资金,以逃避债务;
(3) it has lost its business creditworthiness;
 (三)丧失商业信誉;
(4) it is in any other circumstance which will or may cause it to lose its ability to perform.
Where a party suspends performance without conclusive evidence, it shall be liable for breach of contract.
 (四)有丧失或者可能丧失履行债务能力的其他情形。
当事人没有确切证据中止履行的,应当承担违约责任。
Article 69 If a party suspends its performance in accordance with the provisions of Article 68 of this Law, it shall timely notify the other party. If the other party provides appropriate assurance for its performance, the party shall resume performance. After performance was suspended, if theother party fails to regain its ability to perform and fails to provide appropriate assurance within a reasonable time, the suspending party may terminate the contract.
   第六十九条 【不安抗辩权的行使】当事人依照本法第六十八条的规定中止履行的,应当及时通知对方。对方提供适当担保时,应当恢复履行。中止履行后,对方在合理期限内未恢复履行能力并且未提供适当担保的,中止履行的一方可以解除合同。
Article 70 Where the obligee fails to notify the obligor of its separation, merger, or change of the domicile, thereby making it difficult for the obligor to perform its obligations, the obligor may suspend its performance or escrow the subject matter.
   第七十条 【因债权人原因致债务履行困难的处理】债权人分立、合并或者变更住所没有通知债务人,致使履行债务发生困难的,债务人可以中止履行或者将标的物提存。
Article 71 The obligee may reject the obligor's advance performance of its obligations, except that the advance performance does not harm the obligee's interests.
Any additional expense incurred by the obligee due to the obligor's advance performance of its obligations shall be borne by the obligor.
   第七十一条 【债务的提前履行】债权人可以拒绝债务人提前履行债务,但提前履行不损害债权人利益的除外。
债务人提前履行债务给债权人增加的费用,由债务人负担。
Article 72 An obligee may reject the obligor's partial performance, except that the partial performance of its obligations does not harm the obligee's interests.
Any additional expense incurred by the obligee due to the obligor's partial performance of its obligations shall be borne by the obligor.
   第七十二条 【债务的部分履行】债权人可以拒绝债务人部分履行债务,但部分履行不损害债权人利益的除外。
债务人部分履行债务给债权人增加的费用,由债务人负担。
Article 73 Where the obligor is remiss in exercising its due creditor's right, thereby harming the obligee's interests, the obligee may petition the People's Court for subrogation in its own name,except that the creditor's right exclusively belongs to the obligor.
The extent to which the subrogation rights can be exercised is limited to the obligee's rights. The expenses necessary for the obligee to exercise such subrogation rights shall be borne by the obligor.
   第七十三条 【债权人的代位权】因债务人怠于行使其到期债权,对债权人造成损害的,债权人可以向人民法院请求以自己的名义代位行使债务人的债权,但该债权专属于债务人自身的除外。
代位权的行使范围以债权人的债权为限。债权人行使代位权的必要费用,由债务人负担。
Article 74 Where the obligor waives its creditor's right against a third party that is due or assigns its property without reward, thereby harming the obligee's interests, the obligee may petition the People's Court for cancellation of the obligor's act. Where the obligor assigns its propertyat a low price which is manifestly unreasonable, thereby harming the obligee's interests, and the assignee is aware of the situation, the obligee may also petition the People's Court for cancellation of the obligor's act.
The extent to which the right to cancel can be exercised is limited to the rights of the obligee. The expenses necessary for the obligee to exercise the right to cancel shall be borne by the obligor.
   第七十四条 【债权人的撤销权】因债务人放弃其到期债权或者无偿转让财产,对债权人造成损害的,债权人可以请求人民法院撤销债务人的行为。债务人以明显不合理的低价转让财产,对债权人造成损害,并且受让人知道该情形的,债权人也可以请求人民法院撤销债务人的行为。
撤销权的行使范围以债权人的债权为限。债权人行使撤销权的必要费用,由债务人负担。
Article 75 The right to cancel shall be exercised within one year from the date the obligee knows or should have known of the matter for cancellation. Such right to cancel shall lapse if the obligee fails to exercise such rights within five years from the date of the occurrence of such act.
   第七十五条 【撤销权的期间】撤销权自债权人知道或者应当知道撤销事由之日起一年内行使。自债务人的行为发生之日起五年内没有行使撤销权的,该撤销权消灭。
Article 76 Once a contract becomes effective, a party may not refuse to perform its obligations thereunder due to a change in its name, or its legal representative, the person in charge, or the person handling the contract.
   第七十六条 【当事人变化对合同履行的影响】合同生效后,当事人不得因姓名、名称的变更或者法定代表人、负责人、承办人的变动而不履行合同义务。
Chapter 5 Modification and Assignment of Contracts
 

第五章 合同的变更和转让

Article 77 A contract may be modified if the parties reach a consensus through consultation.
If the laws or administrative regulations so provide, approval and registration procedures for such modification shall be gone through in accordance with such provisions.
   第七十七条 【合同变更条件】当事人协商一致,可以变更合同。
法律、行政法规规定变更合同应当办理批准、登记等手续的,依照其规定。
Article 78 Where an agreement by the parties on the contents of a modification is ambiguous, the contract shall be presumed as not having been modified.
   第七十八条 【合同变更内容不明的处理】当事人对合同变更的内容约定不明确的,推定为未变更。
Article 79 The obligee may assign its rights under a contract, in whole or in part, to a third party,except under the following circumstances:
   第七十九条 【债权的转让】债权人可以将合同的权利全部或者部分转让给第三人,但有下列情形之一的除外:
(1) such rights may not be assigned in light of the nature of the contract;
 (一)根据合同性质不得转让;
(2) such rights may not be assigned according to the agreement between the parties;
 (二)按照当事人约定不得转让;
(3) such rights may not be assigned according to the provisions of the laws.
 (三)依照法律规定不得转让。
Article 80 Where the obligee assigns its rights, it shall notify the obligor. Such assignment will have no effect on the obligor without notice thereof.
A notice by the obligee to assign its rights shall not be revoked, unless such revocation is consented to by the assignee.
   第八十条 【债权转让的通知义务】债权人转让权利的,应当通知债务人。未经通知,该转让对债务人不发生效力。
债权人转让权利的通知不得撤销,但经受让人同意的除外。
Article 81 Where the obligee assigns its right, the assignee shall acquire the collateral rights related to the principal rights, except that the collateral rights exclusively belong to the obligee.
   第八十一条 【从权利的转移】债权人转让权利的,受让人取得与债权有关的从权利,但该从权利专属于债权人自身的除外。
Article 82 Upon receipt of the notice of assignment of rights, the obligor may assert against the assignee any defenses it has against the assignor.
   第八十二条 【债务人的抗辩权】债务人接到债权转让通知后,债务人对让与人的抗辩,可以向受让人主张。
Article 83 Upon receipt by the obligor of the notice of assignment of rights, the obligor shall have vested rights against the assignor, and if the rights of the obligor vest prior to or at the same time as the assigned rights, the obligor may claim an offset against the assignee.
   第八十三条 【债务人的抵销权】债务人接到债权转让通知时,债务人对让与人享有债权,并且债务人的债权先于转让的债权到期或者同时到期的,债务人可以向受让人主张抵销。
Article 84 Where the obligor delegates its obligations under a contract in whole or in part to a third party, such delegation shall be subject to the consent of the obligee.
   第八十四条 【债权人同意】债务人将合同的义务全部或者部分转移给第三人的,应当经债权人同意。
Article 85 Where the obligor delegates its obligation, the new obligor may exercise any defense that the original obligor had against the obligee.
   第八十五条 【承担人的抗辩】债务人转移义务的,新债务人可以主张原债务人对债权人的抗辩。
Article 86 Where the obligor delegates its obligation, the new obligor shall assume the incidental obligations related to the main obligations, except that the obligations exclusively belong to the original obligor.
   第八十六条 【从债的转移】债务人转移义务的,新债务人应当承担与主债务有关的从债务,但该从债务专属于原债务人自身的除外。
Article 87 Where the laws or administrative regulations stipulate that the assignment of rights or transfer of obligations shall undergo approval or registration procedures, such provisions shall be followed.
   第八十七条 【合同转让形式要件】法律、行政法规规定转让权利或者转移义务应当办理批准、登记等手续的,依照其规定。
Article 88 Upon the consent of the other party, one party may transfer its rights together with its obligations under contract to a third party.
   第八十八条 【概括转让】当事人一方经对方同意,可以将自己在合同中的权利和义务一并转让给第三人。
Article 89 Where the rights and obligations are transferred together, the provisions in Articles 79,Articles 81 to 83, and Articles 85 to 87 of this Law shall be applied.
   第八十九条 【概括转让的效力】权利和义务一并转让的,适用本法第七十九条、第八十一条至第八十三条、第八十五条至第八十七条的规定。
Article 90 Where a party is merged after the contract has been concluded, the legal person or other organization established after the merger shall exercise the rights and obligations thereunder.Unless otherwise agreed upon by the obligor and obligee, the legal persons or other organizations that exist after the division shall jointly enjoy the rights and jointly assume the obligationsunder the contract.
   第九十条 【新当事人的概括承受】当事人订立合同后合并的,由合并后的法人或者其他组织行使合同权利,履行合同义务。当事人订立合同后分立的,除债权人和债务人另有约定的以外,由分立的法人或者其他组织对合同的权利和义务享有连带债权,承担连带债务。
Chapter 6 Termination of Contractual Rights and Obligations
 

第六章 合同的权利义务终止

Article 91 The rights and obligations under a contract shall be terminated under any of the following circumstances:
   第九十一条 【合同消灭的原因】有下列情形之一的,合同的权利义务终止:
(1) the obligations have been performed as agreed upon;
 (一)债务已经按照约定履行;
(2) the contract has been rescinded;
 (二)合同解除;
(3) the obligations have been offset against each other;
 (三)债务相互抵销;
(4) the obligor has escrowed the subject matter accordance with the law;
 (四)债务人依法将标的物提存;
(5) the obligee has released the obligor of its obligation;
 (五)债权人免除债务;
(6) the rights and obligations have vested in one party;
 (六)债权债务同归于一人;
(7) any other circumstances for termination as stipulated by the laws or agreed upon by the parties.
 (七)法律规定或者当事人约定终止的其他情形。
Article 92 After the termination of the rights and obligations under the contract, the parties shall observe the principal of honesty and good faith and perform the obligations of notification,assistance and confidentiality, etc. in accordance with relevant transaction practices.
   第九十二条 【合同终止后的义务】合同的权利义务终止后,当事人应当遵循诚实信用原则,根据交易习惯履行通知、协助、保密等义务。
Article 93 The parties may terminate a contract if they reach a consensus through consultation.
The parties may agree upon conditions under which either party may terminate the contract.Upon satisfaction of the conditions, the party who has the right to terminate may terminate the contract.
   第九十三条 【合同约定解除】当事人协商一致,可以解除合同。
当事人可以约定一方解除合同的条件。解除合同的条件成就时,解除权人可以解除合同。
Article 94 The parties to a contract may terminate the contract under any of the following circumstances:
   第九十四条 【合同的法定解除】有下列情形之一的,当事人可以解除合同:
(1) it is rendered impossible to achieve the purpose of contract due to an event of force majeure;
 (一)因不可抗力致使不能实现合同目的;
(2) prior to the expiration of the period of performance, the other party expressly states, or indicates through its conduct, that it will not perform its main obligation;
 (二)在履行期限届满之前,当事人一方明确表示或者以自己的行为表明不履行主要债务;
(3) the other party delayed performance of its main obligation after such performance has been demand, and fails to perform within a reasonable period;
 (三)当事人一方迟延履行主要债务,经催告后在合理期限内仍未履行;
(4) the other party delays performance of its obligations, or breaches the contract in some other manner, rendering it impossible to achieve the purpose of the contract;
 (四)当事人一方迟延履行债务或者有其他违约行为致使不能实现合同目的;
(5) other circumstance as provided by law.
 (五)法律规定的其他情形。
Article 95 Where the laws stipulates or the parties agreed upon the time limit to exercise the right to terminate the contract, and no party exercises it when the time limit expires, the said right shall be extinguished.
Where neither the law stipulates nor the parties make an agreement upon the time limit to exercise the right to terminate the contract, and no party exercise it within a reasonable time period after being urged, the said right shall be extinguished.
   第九十五条 【解除权消灭】法律规定或者当事人约定解除权行使期限,期限届满当事人不行使的,该权利消灭。
法律没有规定或者当事人没有约定解除权行使期限,经对方催告后在合理期限内不行使的,该权利消灭。
Article 96 A party demanding termination of a contract in accordance with the provisions of Paragraph 2 of Article 93 and Article 94 of this Law shall notify the other party. The contract shall be terminated upon the receipt of the notice by the other party. If the other party objects to such termination, it may petition the People's Court or an arbitration institution to adjudicate thevalidity of the termination of the contract.
Where the laws and administrative regulations so provide, the approval and registration procedures for the termination of the contract shall be gone through in accordance with such laws and regulations.
   第九十六条 【解除权的行使】当事人一方依照本法第九十三条第二款、第九十四条的规定主张解除合同的,应当通知对方。合同自通知到达对方时解除。对方有异议的,可以请求人民法院或者仲裁机构确认解除合同的效力。
法律、行政法规规定解除合同应当办理批准、登记等手续的,依照其规定。
Article 97 After the termination of a contract, performance shall cease if the contract has not been performed; if the contract has been performed, a party may, in accordance with the circumstances of performance or the nature of the contract, demand the other party to restore such party to its original state or adopt other remedial measures, and such party shall have the right to demand compensation for damages.
   第九十七条 【解除的效力】合同解除后,尚未履行的,终止履行;已经履行的,根据履行情况和合同性质,当事人可以要求恢复原状、采取其他补救措施、并有权要求赔偿损失。
Article 98 The termination of rights and obligations under a contact shall not affect the validity of clauses that related to the final settlement of accounts and winding-up.
   第九十八条 【结算、清理条款效力】合同的权利义务终止,不影响合同中结算和清理条款的效力。
Article 99 Where the parties are liable to one another for obligations that are due, and if the type and nature of the subject matter of such obligations are the same, any party may offset its own obligation against the obligation of the other party, except unless such offset is not allowed according to the laws and regulations or cannot be made given the nature of the contract.
The party who claims such offset shall notify the other party. The notice shall become effective when it reaches the other party. The offset shall not be subject to any condition or time limit.
   第九十九条 【债务的抵销及行使】当事人互负到期债务,该债务的标的物种类、品质相同的,任何一方可以将自己的债务与对方的债务抵销,但依照法律规定或者按照合同性质不得抵销的除外。
当事人主张抵销的,应当通知对方。通知自到达对方时生效。抵销不得附条件或者附期限。
Article 100 Where the parties have obligations towards one another, and the type and nature of such obligations are different, the obligations may also be offset upon consensus between the parties after consultation.
   第一百条 【债务的约定抵销】当事人互负债务,标的物种类、品质不相同的,经双方协商一致,也可以抵销。
Article 101 The obligor may escrow the subject matter under any of the following circumstances which render performance of the obligations difficult:,
   第一百零一条 【提存的要件】有下列情形之一,难以履行债务的,债务人可以将标的物提存:
(1) the obligee refuses to accept them without justified reasons;
 (一)债权人无正当理由拒绝受领;
(2) the whereabouts of the obligee are unknown;
 (二)债权人下落不明;
(3) the obligee is deceased and the successor has not been determined, or the obligee has lost civil capacity and a guardian has not been appointed;
 (三)债权人死亡未确定继承人或者丧失民事行为能力未确定监护人;
(4) other circumstance as provided for in the laws.
Where the subject matter is not fit for escrow, or the cost of escrow is excessively high,the obligor may auction or sell the subject matter according to law, and escrow the proceeds therefrom.
 (四)法律规定的其他情形。
标的物不适于提存或者提存费用过高的,债务人依法可以拍卖或者变卖标的物,提存所得的价款。
Article 102 Unless the whereabouts of the obligee are unknown, the obligee shall notify the obligee, or the successor or guardian of the obligor immediately after the subject matter has been placed in escrow.
   第一百零二条 【提存后的通知】标的物提存后,除债权人下落不明的以外,债务人应当及时通知债权人或者债权人的继承人、监护人。
Article 103 Once the subject matter has been placed in escrow, the risk of damage to, destruction or loss of the subject matter shall be borne by the obligee. The obligee shall be entitled to any fruits of the subject matter during the escrow period. Escrow expenses shall be borne by the obligee.
   第一百零三条 【提存的效力】标的物提存后,毁损、灭失的风险由债权人承担。提存期间,标的物的孳息归债权人所有。提存费用由债权人负担。
Article 104 The obligee may claim the subject matter in escrow at any time, except that if the obligee has any due obligations toward the obligor, prior to the obligee's performance of its obligations or the obligee's provision of security for its performance, the escrow institution shall, at the request of the obligor, refuse the obligee's claim of the escrowed subject matter.
The right of the obligee to reclaim the subject matter in escrow shall lapse if it is not exercised within five years from the date the subject matter is placed in escrow, and the escrowed subject matter shall revert to the national treasury after the deduction of the escrow costs.
   第一百零四条 【提存物的受领及受领权消灭】债权人可以随时领取提存物,但债权人对债务人负有到期债务的,在债权人未履行债务或者提供担保之前,提存部门根据债务人的要求应当拒绝其领取提存物。
债权人领取提存物的权利,自提存之日起五年内不行使而消灭,提存物扣除提存费用后归国家所有。
Article 105 Where an obligee releases the obligor of its own obligations, in whole or in part, the rights and obligations under the contract shall terminate in whole or in part.
   第一百零五条 【免除的效力】债权人免除债务人部分或者全部债务的,合同的权利义务部分或者全部终止。
Article 106 If the rights and obligations under a contract vest in one party, such rights and obligations thereunder shall terminate, unless they involve the interests of a third party.
   第一百零六条 【混同的效力】债权和债务同归于一人的,合同的权利义务终止,但涉及第三人利益的除外。
Chapter 7 Liabilities for Breach of Contracts
 

第七章 违约责任

Article 107 If a party fails to perform its obligations under a contract, or its performance fails to satisfy the terms of the contract, it shall bear the liabilities for breach of contract such as to continue to perform its obligations, to take remedial measures, or to compensate for losses.
   第一百零七条 【违约责任】当事人一方不履行合同义务或者履行合同义务不符合约定的,应当承担继续履行、采取补救措施或者赔偿损失等违约责任。
Article 108 Where one party express explicitly or indicates by its conduct that it will not perform its obligations under a contract, the other party may demand it to bear the liability for the breach of contract before the expiry of the performance period.
   第一百零八条 【拒绝履行】当事人一方明确表示或者以自己的行为表明不履行合同义务的,对方可以在履行期限届满之前要求其承担违约责任。
Article 109 If a party fails to pay the price or remuneration, the other party may request it to make the payment.
   第一百零九条 【金钱债务的违约责任】当事人一方未支付价款或者报酬的,对方可以要求其支付价款或者报酬。
Article 110 Where a party fails to perform the non-monetary obligations or its performance of non-monetary obligations fails to satisfy the terms of the contract, the other party may request it to perform it except under any of the following circumstances:
   第一百一十条 【非金钱债务的违约责任】当事人一方不履行非金钱债务或者履行非金钱债务不符合约定的,对方可以要求履行,但有下列情形之一的除外:
(1) it is unable to be performed in law or in fact;
 (一)法律上或者事实上不能履行;
(2) the subject matter of the obligation is unfit for compulsory performance or the performance expenses are excessively high;
 (二)债务的标的不适于强制履行或者履行费用过高;
(3) the obligee does not require performance within a reasonable time.
 (三)债权人在合理期限内未要求履行。
Article 111 Where the quality fails to satisfy the agreement, the breach of contract damages shall be borne in the manner as agreed upon by the parties. Where there is no agreement in the contract on the liability for breach of contract or such agreement is unclear, nor can it be determined in accordance with the provisions of Article 61 of this Law, the damaged party may, in light of the nature of the subject matter and the degree of loss, reasonably choose to request the other party to bear the liabilities for the breach of contract such as repairing, substituting, reworking,returning the goods, or reducing the price or remuneration.
   第一百一十一条 【瑕疵履行】质量不符合约定的,应当按照当事人的约定承担违约责任。对违约责任没有约定或者约定不明确,依照本法第六十一条的规定仍不能确定的,受损害方根据标的的性质以及损失的大小,可以合理选择要求对方承担修理、更换、重作、退货、减少价款或者报酬等违约责任。
Article 112 Where a party fails to perform its obligations under the contract or its performance fails to conform to the agreement, and the other party still suffers from other damages after the performance of the obligations or adoption of remedial measures, such party shall compensate the other party for such damages.
   第一百一十二条 【履行、补救措施后的损失赔偿】当事人一方不履行合同义务或者履行合同义务不符合约定的,在履行义务或者采取补救措施后,对方还有其他损失的,应当赔偿损失。
Article 113 Where a party fails to perform its obligations under the contract or its performance fails to conform to the agreement and cause losses to the other party, the amount of compensation for losses shall be equal to the losses caused by the breach of contract, including the interests receivable after the performance of the contract, provided not exceeding the probable lossescaused by the breach of contract which has been foreseen or ought to be foreseen when the party in breach concludes the contract.
The business operator who commits default activities in providing to the consumer any goods or services shall be liable for paying compensation for damages in accordance with the Law of the People's Republic of China on Protection of Consumer Rights and Interests.
   第一百一十三条 【损害赔偿的范围】当事人一方不履行合同义务或者履行合同义务不符合约定,给对方造成损失的,损失赔偿额应当相当于因违约所造成的损失,包括合同履行后可以获得的利益,但不得超过违反合同一方订立合同时预见到或者应当预见到的因违反合同可能造成的损失。
经营者对消费者提供商品或者服务有欺诈行为的,依照《中华人民共和国消费者权益保护法》的规定承担损害赔偿责任。
Article 114 The parties may agree that if one party breaches the contract, it shall pay a certain sum of liquidated damages to the other party in light of the circumstances of the breach, and may also agree on a method for the calculation of the amount of compensation for the damages incurred as a result of the breach.
Where the amount of liquidated damages agreed upon is lower than the damages incurred, a party may petition the People's Court or an arbitration institution to make an increase; where the amount of liquidated damages agreed upon are significantly higher than the damages incurred,a party may petition the People's Court or an arbitration institution to make an appropriate reduction.
Where the parties agree upon breach of contract damages in respect to the delay in performance, the party in breach shall perform the obligations after paying the breach of contract damages.
   第一百一十四条 【违约金】当事人可以约定一方违约时应当根据违约情况向对方支付一定数额的违约金,也可以约定因违约产生的损失赔偿额的计算方法。
约定的违约金低于造成的损失的,当事人可以请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以增加;约定的违约金过分高于造成的损失的,当事人可以请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以适当减少。
当事人就迟延履行约定违约金的,违约方支付违约金后,还应当履行债务。
Article 115 The parties may agree that a party pay a deposit to the other party as a guaranty for the obligation in accordance withthe Security Law of the People's Republic of China. Upon the obligor has performed its obligation, the deposit shall be offset against the price or refunded to the obligor. If the party paying the deposit fails to perform its obligations under the contract, such party has no right to demand for the return of the deposit; where the party accepting the deposit fails to perform its obligations under the contract, such party shall refund twice the value of the deposit.
   第一百一十五条 【定金】当事人可以依照《中华人民共和国担保法》约定一方向对方给付定金作为债权的担保。债务人履行债务后,定金应当抵作价款或者收回。给付定金的一方不履行约定的债务的,无权要求返还定金;收受定金的一方不履行约定的债务的,应当双倍返还定金。
Article 116 If the parties agree on both liquidated damages and a deposit, and one party is in breach,the other party may choose to apply either the provisions for liquidated damages or that for the deposit.
   第一百一十六条 【违约金与定金的选择】当事人既约定违约金,又约定定金的,一方违约时,对方可以选择适用违约金或者定金条款。
Article 117 A party who is unable to perform a contract due to force majeure is exempted from liability in part or in whole in light of the impact of the event of force majeure, except otherwise provided by law. Where an event of force majeure occurs after the party's delay in performance,it is not exempted from such liability.
For purposes of this Law, force majeure means any objective circumstances which are unforeseeable, unavoidable and insurmountable.
   第一百一十七条 【不可抗力】因不可抗力不能履行合同的,根据不可抗力的影响,部分或者全部免除责任,但法律另有规定的除外。当事人迟延履行后发生不可抗力的,不能免除责任。
本法所称不可抗力,是指不能预见、不能避免并不能克服的客观情况。
Article 118 If a party is unable to perform a contract due to an event of force majeure, it shall timely notify the other party so as to mitigate the losses that may be caused to the other party, and shall provide evidence of such event of force majeure within a reasonable period.
   第一百一十八条 【不可抗力的通知与证明】当事人一方因不可抗力不能履行合同的,应当及时通知对方,以减轻可能给对方造成的损失,并应当在合理期限内提供证明。
Article 119 Where a party breached the contract, the other party shall take the appropriate measures to prevent the losses from increasing; where the other party's failure to take appropriate measures results in additional losses, it cannot demand compensation for the additional losses.
Any reasonable expense incurred by the other party in preventing additional losses shall be borne by the party in breach.
   第一百一十九条 【减损规则】当事人一方违约后,对方应当采取适当措施防止损失的扩大;没有采取适当措施致使损失扩大的,不得就扩大的损失要求赔偿。
当事人因防止损失扩大而支出的合理费用,由违约方承担。
Article 120 If both parties breach a contract, each party shall bear its own respective liabilities.
   第一百二十条 【双方违约的责任】当事人双方都违反合同的,应当各自承担相应的责任。
Article 121 Where a party's breach is attributable to a third party, it shall nevertheless be liable to the other party for breach. Any dispute between the party and such third party shall be resolved in accordance with the law or the agreement between the parties.
   第一百二十一条 【因第三人的过错造成的违约】当事人一方因第三人的原因造成违约的,应当向对方承担违约责任。当事人一方和第三人之间的纠纷,依照法律规定或者按照约定解决。
Article 122 Where the breach of contract by one party infringes upon the other party's personal or property rights, the aggrieved party is entitled to choose to claim the assumption by the violating and infringing party of liabilities for breach of contract according to this Law, or to claim the assumption by the violating and infringing party of liabilities for infringementaccording to other laws.
   第一百二十二条 【责任竞合】因当事人一方的违约行为,侵害对方人身、财产权益的,受损害方有权选择依照本法要求其承担违约责任或者依照其他法律要求其承担侵权责任。
Chapter 8 Other Provisions
 

第八章 其他规定

Article 123 Where other laws provide otherwise in respect of a contract, such provisions shall prevail.
   第一百二十三条 【其他规定的适用】其他法律对合同另有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 124 Where there are no explicitly provisions in the Specific Provisions of this Law or in any other law concerning a certain contract, the provisions in the General Provisions of this Law shall be applied, and reference may be made to the provisions in the Specific Provisions of this Law or in any other law that most closely relate to such contract.
   第一百二十四条 【无名合同】本法分则或者其他法律没有明文规定的合同,适用本法总则的规定,并可以参照本法分则或者其他法律最相类似的规定。
Article 125 If any disputes arise between the parties over the understanding of any clause of the contract, the true meaning thereof shall be determined according to the words and sentences used in the contract, the relevant provisions in the contract, the purpose of the contract, the transaction practices and the principle of good faith.
Where a contract is concluded in two or more languages and it is agreed that all versions are equally authentic, the words and sentences in each version are construed to have the same meaning. In case of any discrepancy in the words or sentences used in the different language versions, they shall be interpreted in light of the purpose of the contract.
   第一百二十五条 【合同解释】当事人对合同条款的理解有争议的,应当按照合同所使用的词句、合同的有关条款、合同的目的、交易习惯以及诚实信用原则,确定该条款的真实意思。
合同文本采用两种以上文字订立并约定具有同等效力的,对各文本使用的词句推定具有相同含义。各文本使用的词句不一致的,应当根据合同的目的予以解释。
Article 126 Parties to a foreign-related contract may select the applicable law for resolution of a contractual dispute, except as otherwise provided by law. Where parties to the foreign-related contract fails to select the applicable law, the contract shall be governed by the law of the country with the closest connection thereto.
For a Chinese-foreign equity joint venture contract, Chinese-foreign contractual joint venture contract, or a contract for Chinese-foreign joint exploration and development of natural resources which is performed within the territory of the People's Republic of China, the law of the People's Republic of China shall be applied.
   第一百二十六条 【涉外合同】涉外合同的当事人可以选择处理合同争议所适用的法律,但法律另有规定的除外。涉外合同的当事人没有选择的,适用与合同有最密切联系的国家的法律。
在中华人民共和国境内履行的中外合资经营企业合同、中外合作经营企业合同、中外合作勘探开发自然资源合同,适用中华人民共和国法律。
Article 127 Within the scope of their respective duties, the administrative department of industry and commerce and other relevant departments shall, in accordance with the relevant laws and administrative regulations, be responsible for monitoring and dealing with any illegal acts which, by taking advantage of contracts, harm the interests of the State or the interests of thepublic and society; where such an act constitutes a crime, criminal liability shall be investigated in accordance with the law.
   第一百二十七条 【合同监督机关】工商行政管理部门和其他有关行政主管部门在各自的职权范围内,依照法律、行政法规的规定,对利用合同危害国家利益、社会公共利益的违法行为,负责监督处理;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。
Article 128 The parties may resolve a contractual dispute through settlement or mediation.
Where the parties do not wish to, or are unable to, resolve such dispute through settlement or mediation, the dispute may be submitted to the relevant arbitration institution for arbitration in accordance with the arbitration agreement between the parties. Parties to a foreign-related contract may apply to a Chinese arbitration institution or another arbitration institution for arbitration. Where the parties did not conclude an arbitration agreement, or thearbitration agreement is invalid, either party may bring a suit to the People's Court. The parties shall perform the judgments, arbitration awards or mediation agreements which have taken legal effect; if a party refuses to perform, the other party may request the People's Court for enforcement.
   第一百二十八条 【合同争议的解决】当事人可以通过和解或者调解解决合同争议。
当事人不愿和解、调解或者和解、调解不成的,可以根据仲裁协议向仲裁机构申请仲裁。涉外合同的当事人可以根据仲裁协议向中国仲裁机构或者其他仲裁机构申请仲裁。当事人没有订立仲裁协议或者仲裁协议无效的,可以向人民法院起诉。当事人应当履行发生法律效力的判决、仲裁裁决、调解书;拒不履行的,对方可以请求人民法院执行。
Article 129 For a dispute arising from a contract for the international sale of goods or a technology import or export contract, the time limit for bringing a suit or applying for arbitration is four years, calculating from the date on which the party knows or ought to know the infringement on its rights. For a dispute arising from any other type of contract, the time limit for bringing asuit or applying for arbitration shall be governed by the relevant law.
   第一百二十九条 【特殊时效】因国际货物买卖合同和技术进出口合同争议提起诉讼或者申请仲裁的期限为四年,自当事人知道或者应当知道其权利受到侵害之日起计算。因其他合同争议提起诉讼或者申请仲裁的期限,依照有关法律的规定。
Specific Provisions
 

分则


Chapter 9 Sales Contracts
 

第九章 买卖合同

Article 130 A sales contract is a contract whereby the seller transfers the ownership of a subject matter to the buyer, and the buyer pays the price for it.
   第一百三十条 【定义】买卖合同是出卖人转移标的物的所有权于买受人,买受人支付价款的合同。
Article 131 In addition to the terms set forth in Article 12 of this Law, a sales contract may alsocontain such clauses as package manner, inspection standards and method, method of settlement and clearance, language adopted in the contract and its authenticity.
   第一百三十一条 【买卖合同的内容】买卖合同的内容除依照本法第十二条的规定以外,还可以包括包装方式、检验标准和方法、结算方式、合同使用的文字及其效力等条款。
Article 132 The subject matter to be sold shall be owned by the seller or of that the seller shall have the right to dispose.
Where the transfer of a subject matter is prohibited or restricted by laws or administrative regulation, such provision shall be applied.
   第一百三十二条 【标的物】出卖的标的物,应当属于出卖人所有或者出卖人有权处分。
法律、行政法规禁止或者限制转让的标的物,依照其规定。
Article 133 The ownership of a subject matter shall be transferred upon the delivery of the object,except as otherwise stipulated by law or agreed upon by the parties.
   第一百三十三条 【标的物所有权转移时间】标的物的所有权自标的物交付时起转移,但法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 134 The parties to a sales contract may agree that the ownership shall belong to the seller if the buyer fails to pay the price or perform other obligations.
   第一百三十四条 【标的物所有权转移的约定】当事人可以在买卖合同中约定买受人未履行支付价款或者其他义务的,标的物的所有权属于出卖人。
Article 135 The seller shall perform the obligations of delivering to the buyer the subject matter or handing over the documents for the buyer to take possession of the subject matter and of transferring the ownership thereto.
   第一百三十五条 【出卖人的基本义务】出卖人应当履行向买受人交付标的物或者交付提取标的物的单证,并转移标的物所有权的义务。
Article 136 In addition to the document for taking possession, the seller shall deliver to the buyer the relevant documents and materials in accordance with the agreement or transaction practices.
......
   第一百三十六条 【有关单证和资料的交付】出卖人应当按照约定或者交易习惯向买受人交付提取标的物单证以外的有关单证和资料。
......

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